HORUS, ANUBIS, OSIRIS, & THOTH - Think-AboutIt
See more ideas about Ancient Egypt, Egyptian mythology and Anubis. And now for one of my personal favorites, along with Anubis and butaivilniuje.info, god of the . This lesson explores the myths and relationship of Anubis and Bastet, a story featured Difference Between the Eye of Ra & the Eye of Horus. Characterization and Relationships; God of the Dead. Guardian; 2 Judge. Anubis in the Isis/Osiris Cycle; Patron of Embalmers purpose was to emphasize the unending continuation of existence.
The clearest instance where a god dies is the myth of Osiris's murderin which that god is resurrected as ruler of the Duat. In the process he comes into contact with the rejuvenating water of Nunthe primordial chaos.
Funerary texts that depict Ra's journey through the Duat also show the corpses of gods who are enlivened along with him. Instead of being changelessly immortal, the gods periodically died and were reborn by repeating the events of creation, thus renewing the whole world. Some poorly understood Egyptian texts even suggest that this calamity is destined to happen—that the creator god will one day dissolve the order of the world, leaving only himself and Osiris amid the primordial chaos.
In Egyptian tradition, the world includes the earth, the sky, and the Duat. Surrounding them is the dark formlessness that existed before creation. Most events of mythology, set in a time before the gods' withdrawal from the human realm, take place in an earthly setting. The deities there sometimes interact with those in the sky.
The Duat, in contrast, is treated as a remote and inaccessible place, and the gods who dwell there have difficulties in communicating with those in the world of the living. It too is inhabited by deities, some hostile and some beneficial to the other gods and their orderly world.
- Osiris myth
- Egyptian mythology
- Ancient Egyptian deities
Temples were their main means of contact with humanity. Each day, it was believed, the gods moved from the divine realm to their temples, their homes in the human world. There they inhabited the cult imagesthe statues that depicted deities and allowed humans to interact with them in temple rituals. This movement between realms was sometimes described as a journey between the sky and the earth. As temples were the focal points of Egyptian cities, the god in a city's main temple was the patron deity for the city and the surrounding region.
They could establish themselves in new cities, or their range of influence could contract. Therefore, a given deity's main cult center in historical times is not necessarily his or her place of origin. When kings from Thebes took control of the country at start of the Middle Kingdom c. In keeping with this belief, the names of deities often relate to their roles or origins. The name of the predatory goddess Sekhmet means "powerful one", the name of the mysterious god Amun means "hidden one", and the name of Nekhbetwho was worshipped in the city of Nekhebmeans "she of Nekheb".
Many other names have no certain meaning, even when the gods who bear them are closely tied to a single role. The names of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb do not resemble the Egyptian terms for sky and earth. Among them were secret names that conveyed their true natures more profoundly than others. To know the true name of a deity was to have power over it.
The importance of names is demonstrated by a myth in which Isis poisons the superior god Ra and refuses to cure him unless he reveals his secret name to her.
Upon learning the name, she tells it to her son, Horus, and by learning it they gain greater knowledge and power. Because of the gods' multiple and overlapping roles, deities can have many epithets—with more important gods accumulating more titles—and the same epithet can apply to many deities.
Some deities were androgynous, but usually in the context of creation myths, in which they represented the undifferentiated state that existed before the world was created. Shu and his consort Tefnut. It included the concepts of mother, father, and child into one deity. Female deities were often relegated to a supporting role, often as a constant or encompassing element, stimulating their male consorts' virility and nurturing their children, although goddesses were given a larger role in procreation late in Egyptian history.
While most ancient traditions and religions around the world see the sky as a masculine element, Nut was portrayed as female. A god's connections and interactions with other deities helped define its character. Thus Isis, as the mother and protector of Horus, was a great healer as well as the patroness of kings. Such relationships were the base material from which myths were formed.
Deities often form male and female pairs. As such, he is their designated representative, obligated to maintain order in human society just as they do in nature, and to continue the rituals that sustain them and their activities. In Egyptian belief, the disorder that predates the ordered world exists beyond the world as an infinite expanse of formless water, personified by the god Nun. The earth, personified by the god Gebis a flat piece of land over which arches the sky, usually represented by the goddess Nut.
The Egyptian Gods
The two are separated by the personification of air, Shu. The sun god Ra is said to travel through the sky, across the body of Nut, enlivening the world with his light. At night Ra passes beyond the western horizon into the Duata mysterious region that borders the formlessness of Nun.
At dawn he emerges from the Duat in the eastern horizon. Egyptian texts variously describe the nighttime sun as traveling beneath the earth and within the body of Nut. The Egyptologist James P. Allen believes that these explanations of the sun's movements are dissimilar but coexisting ideas. In Allen's view, Nut represents the visible surface of the waters of Nun, with the stars floating on this surface.
The sun, therefore, sails across the water in a circle, each night passing beyond the horizon to reach the skies that arch beneath the inverted land of the Duat. Leskohowever, believes that the Egyptians saw the sky as a solid canopy and described the sun as traveling through the Duat above the surface of the sky, from west to east, during the night.
The sun and the stars move along with this dome, and their passage below the horizon is simply their movement over areas of the earth that the Egyptians could not see. These regions would then be the Duat. Outside them are the infertile deserts, which are associated with the chaos that lies beyond the world.
There, two mountains, in the east and the west, mark the places where the sun enters and exits the Duat. Foreign people, likewise, are generally lumped in with the " nine bows ", people who threaten pharaonic rule and the stability of maat, although peoples allied with or subject to Egypt may be viewed more positively.
While some stories pertain to the sky or the Duat, Egypt itself is usually the scene for the actions of the gods. Often, even the myths set in Egypt seem to take place on a plane of existence separate from that inhabited by living humans, although in other stories, humans and gods interact. In either case, the Egyptian gods are deeply tied to their home land.
Each day the sun rose and set, bringing light to the land and regulating human activity; each year the Nile floodedrenewing the fertility of the soil and allowing the highly productive agriculture that sustained Egyptian civilization. These periodic events inspired the Egyptians to see all of time as a series of recurring patterns regulated by maat, renewing the gods and the universe.
After this time, the Egyptians believed, authority on earth passed to human pharaohs. At the other end of time is the end of the cycles and the dissolution of the world. Because these distant periods lend themselves to linear narrative better than the cycles of the present, John Baines sees them as the only periods in which true myths take place. Egyptians saw even stories that were set in that time as being perpetually true. The myths were made real every time the events to which they were related occurred.
These events were celebrated with rituals, which often evoked myths. Because of the fragmentary nature of Egyptian myths, there is little indication in Egyptian sources of a chronological sequence of mythical events. Ancient Egyptian creation myths Among the most important myths were those describing the creation of the world. The Egyptian developed many accounts of the creation, which differ greatly in the events they describe.
In particular, the deities credited with creating the world vary in each account. This difference partly reflects the desire of Egypt's cities and priesthoods to exalt their own patron gods by attributing creation to them.
Yet the differing accounts were not regarded as contradictory; instead, the Egyptians saw the creation process as having many aspects and involving many divine forces. This event represents the establishment of maat and the origin of life.
Egyptian mythology - Wikipedia
One fragmentary tradition centers on the eight gods of the Ogdoadwho represent the characteristics of the primeval water itself. Their actions give rise to the sun represented in creation myths by various gods, especially Rawhose birth forms a space of light and dryness within the dark water.
With the emergence of the sun god, the establisher of maat, the world has its first ruler. Yet Horus and Set cannot be easily equated with the two-halves of the country.
Osiris myth - Wikipedia
Both deities had several cult centers in each region, and Horus is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt. Other events may have also affected the myth. Before even Upper Egypt had a single ruler, two of its major cities were Nekhenin the far south, and Nagadamany miles to the north. The rulers of Nekhen, where Horus was the patron deity, are generally believed to have unified Upper Egypt, including Nagada, under their sway.
Set was associated with Nagada, so it is possible that the divine conflict dimly reflects an enmity between the cities in the distant past. Much later, at the end of the Second Dynasty c. His successor Khasekhemwy used both Horus and Set in the writing of his serekh.
This evidence has prompted conjecture that the Second Dynasty saw a clash between the followers of the Horus king and the worshippers of Set led by Seth-Peribsen. Khasekhemwy's use of the two animal symbols would then represent the reconciliation of the two factions, as does the resolution of the myth. In addition, he usually wears the united crowns of Egypt, the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt. He is a form of the rising sun, representing its earliest light.
Her-ur Horus the Elder In this form, he was represented as the god of light and the husband of Hathor.
He was one of the oldest gods of ancient Egypt. He became the patron of Nekhen Hierakonpolis and the first national god 'God of the Kingdom'. Later, he also became the patron of the pharaohs, and was called the son of truth  — signifying his role as an important upholder of Maat. He was seen as a great falcon with outstretched wings whose right eye was the sun and the left one was the moon. In this form, he was sometimes given the title Kemwer, meaning ' the great black one '.
The Greek form of Her-ur or Har wer is Haroeris.