China: Australia’s most important trade relationship under threat
The authoritative compendium of statistics on merchandise exports and imports, this publication analyses the growth, direction and commodity. Australia–China relations, often known as the Sino–Australian relations, refers to the relations between the Commonwealth of Australia and China. .. as the Australia China Youth Association, Australia-China Youth Dialogue, Australia- China. Intrigues of Story of Yanxi Palace bigger deal than trade war Nearly 85 per cent of Chinese minors use WeChat, compared to only 48 per cent five “Teens feel social media strengthens their relationships with friends and family, . Australia jeopardises Indonesian trade deal with its support for Israel.
Major Australian investments in Spain are in a diverse range of sectors, including financial services and energy, mining, education, petroleum and gas storage and distribution and car parking infrastructure. Australian manufacturers have also had success in Spain. Austrade has an office in Madrid, responsible for Spain and Portugal.
The Spanish Government and Catalan regional Government maintain trade promotion offices in Sydney, where the Spanish-Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, La Camara, promotes business relationships within the Spanish-Australian business community.
Political overview System of government Spain is a parliamentary monarchy. The head of the government is the prime minister known in Spanish as the president of the government who is appointed by the king but must win an investiture vote in parliament. Legislative power is vested in the Cortes Generales, comprising two houses, elected by direct universal adult suffrage for four years.
The Congress of Deputies lower house has members, elected by proportional representation. There is also a less powerful but nevertheless important Senate, with powers of legislative amendment.
It comprises members directly elected and 58 appointed as regional representatives. The Spanish constitution recognises the right of the various regions of Spain to autonomy while emphasising the indissoluble unity of the Spanish state. Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities, each with its own elected assembly and executive government, together with two North African enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla, called autonomous cities.
The powers of the autonomous communities vary considerably, with the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia having special status and extensive powers, including over regional policing.
All of the main national parties also have regional affiliates in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia.
Political developments Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, leader of the PP, was re-appointed in October following two inconclusive election results in December and June Despite the PP winning the most seats in both elections, it did not win sufficient seats to form a majority government.
It took almost one year for the PP to form a minority government with the support of Ciudadanos and the abstention of the Socialist Party. The election returned a fragmented regional parliament with no party winning the majority needed to form government 68 seats. Spaniards are strongly pro-European.
Spain assumed a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the term. Spain has maintained its close relationships with Hispanic America and the Philippines, based on history, a common culture, language, religion and strong investment and trade ties. A further priority is the Mediterranean rim, where a number of countries have important political and economic links with Spain. The Union of the Mediterranean has its headquarters in Barcelona.
Relations with Morocco have often been dominated by the issues of sovereignty of the two Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, illegal immigration, drug-trafficking, fishing rights and countering terrorist activities. Spain continues to dispute British sovereignty over Gibraltar.
Spain became a Forum Dialogue Partner of the Pacific Islands Forum inand provides a modest aid program to the region. Spain has strong historical ties in the Pacific, with Guam, the Marshall Islands, Palau and the Federated States of Micronesia, a part of its former empire. Economic overview Spain's economy grew rapidly following its accession to the European Community in It adopted the euro on 1 January Australia ranked 34th 0.
Since the s, Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin American markets, where Spain is the second biggest foreign investor after the US. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. The first treaty signed between the United States and Australia was the agreement that established the Fulbright program, and since then more than 5, Australians and Americans have received Fulbright scholarships.
The United States and Australia have concluded a mutual legal assistance treaty to enhance bilateral cooperation on legal and counter-narcotics issues. The two countries have also signed tax and defense trade cooperation treaties, as well as agreements on health cooperation, space, science and technology, emergency management cooperation, and social security.
In July ofthe United States, Australia, and Japan announced they would work together on a trilateral basis to invest in infrastructure projects in the region.
A number of U. The United States and Australia responded to the Ebola and Zika epidemics and support the Global Health Security Agenda to accelerate measureable progress toward a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats.
Bilateral Economic Relations The U. Intotal U. Yet for many Australians a fear of China is proving difficult to overcome. Born in Australia of Malaysian Chinese parents, hers was a time when non-European or non-Indigenous faces stood out around the public housing estates of Mount Druitt, in Sydney's outer west.
The Vietnamese and ethnic Chinese of Cabramatta and Cantonese-speaking clans of Haymarket's Chinatown might as well have been 10, kilometres away, for all their presence helped Chew feel about herself.
Spain country brief - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Chinese influence in Australia has taken many forms, some of them better appreciated than others. Edwina Pickles "I suffered a lot of racial bullying and a lot of physical bullying," she recalls.
Chew survived the childhood taunts and shame to make it to Sydney University, where amid expanding cohorts of Chinese, Indian, Korean and south-east Asian students, she learned to celebrate her identity and fight prejudice and discrimination.
In she helped found the Asian Australian Alliance, which lobbies on behalf of Asian communities. Complex relationship Australia has also changed dramatically in the past two decades. Never before have there been more people of Chinese origin in Australia, or the nations' economies so tightly linked. Yet deep cultural and historical differences, and the obvious physical ones, mean the relationship will always be complex.
Karleen Minney "Australia is a multicultural society, but not necessarily a tolerant one," Chew says.
Advertisement Chinese students account for anotheror so, while there are many other first- second- and third-generation Australian-Chinese from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore and even a smattering of descendants from the first wave of arrivals during the gold rush of the mid- to lateth century. Conversely, Mandarin teaching is increasingly on offer in high schools around the country, something identified by successive federal governments as crucial to the country's engagement with China.
Benjamin Law says "to make that assumption — that something has gone away just because we will it away — is putting your head in the sand. The Mapping Social Cohesion survey by the Scanlon Foundation, which researches the transition of migrants into Australian society, found an important drop in reported experiences of discrimination across all immigrant groups, to This, however, is not to say the Chinese always feel welcome in this country.
Australia - Statistics & Facts | Statista
In fact, the same survey found that 25 per cent of Chinese-born immigrants had experienced discrimination in the workplace, on public transport, at sporting events, in the street, at social gatherings, at school or university or while shopping. Australia has a long history of anti-Asian and anti-Chinese feeling, starting with "roll-ups" of Chinese diggers in the Victorian goldfields in the s and the infamous race riots at Lambing Flats, in Young, NSW, in the s.
Colonial immigration rules springing from this bloody period, during which hundreds of Chinese miners were badly injured, were the precursor to the country's notorious White Australia Policy, which prescribed non-Asian immigration for the first 60 years of federation.
Advertisement Although not as openly vilified and demonised as the country's increasing Muslim population, the Chinese diaspora in Australia today are still subjected to the full spectrum of abuse, from casual racism and name-calling to workplace and official discrimination and physical attacks.
Despite boasting one of the West's biggest Asian populations as a proportion of the total, Australia appears to lag countries such as Canada and the United States in integration. Asians, and people of Chinese descent more specifically, seem under-represented in government, the judiciary and many types of business. Bamboo ceiling This, lobbyists such as Chew say, is what needs to be addressed in modern Australia.
What we call racial bias and, to use the trendy term, the bamboo ceiling, do exist," she says. Advertisement However, he says his experiences over the years suggest there is a growing awareness, at least, of the issue within corporate Australia.
Australia's brand of multiculturalism And it's not that Anglo-Celtic Australia's relationship with the Chinese and Asia has ever been smooth, says academic and author Professor Andrew Jakubowicz, whose works include the lauded For Those Who've Come Across the Sea, about Australia's brand of multiculturalism.