Moksha - New World Encyclopedia
Atman refers to the essence of each individual living thing - its soul or primary living energy. Each living How are Atman and Brahman related? 2, Views. Moksha also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and .. There is difference between these ideas, as explained elsewhere in this article, but they are all soteriological concepts of . Advaita holds there is no being/non-being distinction between Atman, Brahman, and Paramatman. Brahman (ब्रह्म) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the .. Brahman as a soteriological concept: Moksha The concept of Brahman, its nature and its relationship with Atman and the observed universe, is a.
In other words, each individual soul - say, yours or mine - comes from and is made of the same reality as the world soul. There is no distinction between us, on the one hand, and the ultimate divine reality, on the other.
This is an amazing concept!
- Hinduism: core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha.
- Hindu concepts
It basically means that in our deepest selves, we are divine. All living things are divine in their deepest selves. Now, that divine self may be hidden or covered over by hatred, envy, fear or other negative things.
But, it is there nonetheless and it is our "true" and "eternal" selves.
Brahman - Wikipedia
Maybe you've heard people say hello, goodbye or greet people with the word "namaste" accompanied by clasped hands and a bow.
What this greeting means is something like "the divine in me honors the divine in you. This concept is at the heart of much of the non-violent tradition in Hinduism, and is has spread throughout the world into other systems of thought. And, as you can see they way it's been diagrammed here, the way we've drawn it out Atman is essentially the same thing as Brahman.
And, oftentimes you will see it referred to as Atman-Brahman, they're really the same thing but it's really, it's an illusion that there is this separateness of our reality.
Now, according to Hindu belief in each life you have this core part of yourself which is Atman, which is part of Brahman. And, when you die it doesn't disappear, but it will take on or it will subjugate itself to another reality.
So, after death this individual or this perceived individual might take on another identity in another reality. They would perceive it as another life. And, this notion of one life after another, one reality after another is sometimes referred to as transmigration of the soul, sometimes referred to reincarnation, or this notion of Samsara, which is this endless cycle of birth and rebirth.
It really comes from this notion of same flowing, this thing, this pattern that goes on and on and on. And, according to Hindu belief what that next life is, what that next reality is is based on your actions in this life. Karma, literally is referring to actions, but it's really actions driving consequences not only in this reality but in the next reality. Now, there's another notion of Dharma. Dharma is based on what is the role you should play given the reality, given the life that you are in.
So, in a very simplified way you could say, "Well, Dharma is the rightful role, the rightful actions, "your duty depending on your role, "depending on your reality. Now, a core idea of Hinduism is to try to escape from this cycle, to awaken to the true reality, awaken from this quasi-reality. And, this is really one of the central ideas of the Upanishads that eventually if you can awaken, so let's say that this is an awakening, this entity, this Atman, this self right over here, this perceived individual has now awoken and can see through, pierces the veil of that Maya.
Now, they have rejoined Brahman and they've recognized that Atman and Brahman are the same. And, this freeing from Samsara, from this birth death cycle, this is referred to as Moksha. Now, to make this idea a little bit clearer let's look at some quotes from the actual Upanishads.
So, this is two versions from the Isha Upanishad and the reason why I like to show it is because it shows that if you're translating from Sanskrit into English or really from any one language into another there's gonna be some room for interpretation but we can see it here. So, this is from the Isha Upanishad which is considered one of most important ones. It's a subset, it's a section of the Yajurveda, one of the four early Vedas. During the Upanishadic era, Hinduism expanded this to include a fourth stage of life: In Vedic literature, there are three modes of experience: The Upanishadic era expanded it to include turiyam - the stage beyond deep sleep.
The Vedas suggest three goals of man: To these, the Upanishadic era added moksha. These refused to recognize moksha for centuries, considering it irrelevant.
Other schools of Hinduism, over time, accepted the moksha concept and refined it over time. Patrick Olivelle suggests these ideas likely originated with new religious movements in the first millennium BCE. Vedic, yogic and bhakti. In the Vedic period, moksha was ritualistic.
The significance of these rituals was to reproduce and recite the cosmic creation event described in the Vedas; the description of knowledge on different levels - adhilokam, adhibhutam, adhiyajnam, adhyatmam - helped the individual transcend to moksa.
Knowledge was the means, the ritual its application. By the middle to late Upanishadic period, the emphasis shifted to knowledge, and ritual activities were considered irrelevant to the attainment of moksha. Yogic moksha principles were accepted in many other schools of Hinduism, albeit with differences.
For example, Adi Shankara in his book on moksha suggests: Verse 13 — Vivekachudamani8th Century AD  Bhakti moksha created the third historical path, where neither rituals nor meditative self-development were the way, rather it was inspired by constant love and contemplation of God, which over time results in a perfect union with God. Kaivalya is the realization of aloofness with liberating knowledge of one's self and union with the spiritual universe. Some scholars, states Jayatilleke, assert that the Nirvana of Buddhism is same as the Brahman in Hinduism, a view other scholars and he disagree with.
Modern literature additionally uses the Buddhist term nirvana interchangeably with moksha of Hinduism. The six major orthodox schools of Hinduism have had a historic debate, and disagree over whether moksha can be achieved in this life, or only after this life. These discussions show the differences between the schools of Hinduism, a lack of consensus, with a few attempting to conflate the contrasting perspectives between various schools.
In Vedanta school, the Advaita sub-school concludes moksha is possible in this life,  while Dvaita and Visistadvaita sub-schools of Vedanta tradition believes that moksha is a continuous event, one assisted by loving devotion to God, that extends from this life to post-mortem.
Beyond these six orthodox schools, some heterodox schools of Hindu tradition, such as Carvaka, deny there is a soul or after life moksha. Yoga is both a theory and a practice.
Atman & Brahman
The eight limbs of yoga can be interpreted as a way to liberation moksha. In this school, kaivalya means the realization of purusa, the principle of consciousness, as independent from mind and body, as different from prakrti.
Detachment means withdrawal from outer world and calming of mind, while practice means the application of effort over time.