Marc Antony and Cleopatra Relationship Lessons | LoveToKnow
The romance between Antony and Cleopatra might have changed the world. However, their relationship ended in mutual suicide in 30 BC, eleven years after it started, when Roman troops engulfed the Egyptian city of Marc Antony. Creating a strong bond and status isn't everything are just a few relationship lessons learned from Marc Antony and Cleopatra. This tragically famous couple.. . Antony and Cleopatra are among history's most famous lovers. and it proved to be a silver denarius, minted by Mark Antony to pay his soldiers in It seemed a connection not only with a grandparent, but also with Marcus.
This mistrust of his power, along with the disapproval of his relationship with Cleopatra, eventually led to the plot to assassinate Caesar. Anthony wanted to extend his power in the eastern Roman Empire through warfare, but he needed financial assistance.
Knowing the Cleopatra was very wealthy, he summoned to meet with her. As she did with Caesar, Cleopatra was able to charm Anthony and the two of them became lovers.
Cleopatra agreed to fund Anthony's war campaigns, and in return was able to keep Egypt independent of Rome. In addition, she also obtained land that had formally been under control of the Roman Empire.
The two lovers eventually married even though both were married to someone else within their separate Empires and they had three children together. Once the Roman people finally learned of the deal Anthony made with Cleopatra, they were outraged. With the help of a competing member of the triumvirate, the Roman senate ended up declaring war on Cleopatra and Anthony. When a battle became inevitable, Cleopatra convinced Anthony to wage a naval battle, even though his army was strong than his navy.
As the battle started, Cleopatra pulled her ships out of the war and sailed back to Egypt. Anthony followed her, but by doing so it left his navy leaderless and they lost. Meanwhile, his army was also defected, leaving him powerless. Cleopatra arrived in Egypt and acted as if she had won the war, but the charade was only able to last so long as the Roman army moved in on Egypt.
Upon arriving in Egypt, Anthony was given false information that Cleopatra had died. The feud between Caesar and Pompey erupted into open confrontation by early 49 BC. Upon assuming office in January, Antony immediately summoned a meeting of the Senate to resolve the conflict: Antony then made a new proposal: Caesar would retain only two of his eight legions and the governorship of Illyrium if he was allowed to stand for the Consulship in absentia.
This arrangement ensured his immunity from suit would continue: Though Pompey found the concession satisfactory, Cato and Lentulus refused to back down, with Lentulus even expelling Antony from the Senate meeting by force.
Antony fled Rome, fearing for his life, and returned to Caesar's camp on the banks of the Rubicon Riverthe southern limit of Caesar's lawful command. Under the leadership of Cato and with the tacit support of Pompey, the Senate passed the "final decree" senatus consultum ultimum stripping Caesar of his command and ordering him to return to Rome and stand trial for war crimes.
The Senate further declared Caesar a traitor and a public enemy if he did not immediately disband his army. As Tribune, Antony's person was sacrosanct and therefore it was unlawful to harm him or refuse to recognize his veto. Three days later, on 10 January, Caesar crossed the Rubicon Riverstarting a civil war. Caesar's rapid advance surprised Pompey, who, along with the other chief members of the Optimates, fled Italy for Greece. After entering Rome, instead of pursuing Pompey, Caesar marched to Spain to defeat Pompeian-loyalists there.
Meanwhile, Antony, with the rank of Propraetor despite never having served as Praetorwas installed as governor of Italy and commander of the army, stationed there while Marcus Lepidusone of Caesar's staff officers, ran the provisional administration of Rome itself. In early 48 BC, he prepared to sail with seven legions to Greece to face Pompey. Pompey's forces, however, defeated them and assumed control of the Adriatic Sea along with it. Additionally, the two legions they commanded defected to Pompey.The Face of Mark Antony (Photoshop Reconstruction)
Without their fleet, Caesar lacked the necessary transport ships to cross into Greece with his seven legions. Instead, he sailed with only two and placed Antony in command of the remaining five at Brundisium with instructions to join him as soon as he was able.
Antony, however, managed to trick Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked. Most of Libo's fleet managed to escape, but several of his troops were trapped and captured. The Battle of Pharsalus: Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army.
During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records Antony was Caesar's top general and second to only him in reputation. With food sources running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault. Though an indecisive result, the victory was a tactical win for Pompey.
Pompey, however, did not order a counter-assault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered. Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if Pompey had only attacked him. Assuming a defensive position at the plain of PharsalusCaesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey's, which outnumbered his own two to one.
Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic. After Pompey's defeat, most of the Senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey. The young Cleopatra became Caesar's mistress and bore him a son, Caesarion. Caesar's actions further strengthened Roman control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom.
The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabellaa former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts.
Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman ForumAntony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass. Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy. Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella.
When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead.
After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule. When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia.
Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia.
10 Little-Known Facts About Cleopatra - HISTORY
Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name.
For all their fame, Antony and Cleopatra receive little attention in formal study of the first century b. Engaged in a power struggle, they were beaten and so had little real impact on later events. As a student I took courses on the Fall of the Roman Republic and the creation of the Principate, and later on as a lecturer I would devise and teach similar courses myself.
The years from 44—31 b. Ptolemaic Egypt is usually a more specialised field, but, even when it is included in a course, the reign of its last queen -- poorly documented and anyway in the last days of long decline -- is seldom treated in any detail. Antony and Cleopatra did not change the world in any profound way, unlike Caesar and to an even greater extent Augustus. One ancient writer claimed that Caesar's campaigns caused the death of one million people and the enslavement of as many more.
Whatever the provocation, he led his army to seize Rome by force, winning supreme power through civil war, and supplanted the Republic's democratically elected leaders.
Against this, Caesar was famous for his clemency. Throughout his career he championed social reform and aid to the poor in Rome, as well as trying to protect the rights of people in the provinces. Although he made himself dictator, his rule was generally benevolent, and his measures sensible, dealing with long-neglected problems.
The path to power of his adopted son, Augustus, was considerably more vicious, replacing clemency with revenge. Augustus' power was won in civil war and maintained by force, and yet he also ruled well. The Senate's political freedom was virtually extinguished and popular elections rendered unimportant. At the same time he gave Rome a peace it had not known in almost a century of political violence and created a system of government that benefited a far wider section of society than the old Republic.
The True Story Of 'Antony And Cleopatra'
Antony and Cleopatra proved themselves just as capable of savagery and ruthlessness, but the losers in a civil war do not get the chance to shape the future directly. Apart from that, there is no real trace of any long-held beliefs or causes on Antony's part, no indication that he struggled for prominence for anything other than his own glory and profit. Some like to see Cleopatra as deeply committed to the prosperity and welfare of her subjects, but this is largely wishful thinking.
There is no actual evidence to suggest that her concerns went any further than ensuring a steady flow of taxation into her own hands, to cement her hold on power. For only a small part of her reign was she secure on the throne, at the head of a kingdom utterly dependent on Roman goodwill, and it would probably be unreasonable to expect her to have done more than this.