Thomas Becket and Henry II betrayal of a trusted friend
the struggle between Henry II o f England and Archbishop Thomas. Becket of Canterbury. search on Thomas Becket has assumed such a prominent place in th® formation o f feudalism and the growth o f towns. . marriage in to Eleanor* the divorced w ife of Louis VII of. France. .. The elaboration of these lesser. The Lion's Roar: Anger in the Dispute between Henry II and Thomas Becket The conflict between Henry and Becket forms an illustrative subject for the study of medieval anger. . 11 Marc Bloch, Feudal Society, trans. A number of other passages elaborate on the role of anger in defending honor and protecting . Henry II () was king of England from to royal authority, supervised great legal reforms, and clashed with Thomas Becket. To these lands he added the duchy of Aquitaine by his marriage (May 18, ) to feudal overlordship into real authority to govern and deeply resented Henry's strength.
Henry Ii | butaivilniuje.info
Henry's first objective was to regain all the rights and powers of his grandfather King Henry I. He reclaimed royal lands and castles, destroyed castles built without royal permission, and reorganized the machinery of finance, justice, and administration.
He had a wise adviser in Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, and the service of able and experienced administrators such as Nigel, Bishop of Ely, and Richard de Lucy, justiciar till In the next 4 years he reasserted his overlordship of Scotland, the Welsh princes, and Brittany and married his eldest son to the daughter of the King of France; she brought as her dowry the Norman Vexin.
He had already forced his brother Geoffrey to take money instead of the county of Anjou, promised to Geoffrey by their father. Quarrel with the Church Triumphant elsewhere, Henry met some opposition in his attempts to assert his authority over the clergy.
On the death of Archbishop Theobald inhe arranged the election as archbishop of Canterbury of his chancellor and friend Thomas Becket, hoping for his cooperation. But Thomas opposed him, and Henry's reaction was bitter and violent.
The first serious quarrel was about the punishment of clergy accused of crimes; Henry wanted at least the right to punish them when convicted, but Thomas claimed them for the Church courts. In October Henry demanded general acceptance of the customs of his grandfather's time. The following January at Clarendon the customs setting out the king's rights over the Church were defined in writing in 16 clauses, now known as the Constitutions of Clarendon.
Thomas withdrew his acceptance, and Henry now determined to humiliate him. At Northampton in October Thomas was accused on trumped-up charges, and ruinous fines were imposed on him; it was clear that his resignation was required. Finally he fled secretly from England after appealing to the Pope. Henry had the support of some of the bishops and a reasonable case, for most of the disputed customs had indeed been exercised in Henry I's time.
Negotiations dragged on, but Thomas remained in exile till In that year the dispute took a new turn. Henry put himself in the wrong by having his son crowned by the archbishop of York, in defiance of the known right of the archbishop of Canterbury to perform the ceremony.
He now allowed a patched-up peace to be arranged, not mentioning the customs, and carefully avoided giving Thomas the formal kiss of peace, which would have been regarded as binding him not to harm the archbishop.
Reports of Thomas's actions soon drove the king into one of his violent rages, and four of his knights, hoping to please him, hurried to Canterbury and murdered Thomas in his Cathedral on Dec. Henry made a great show of distress and prudently removed himself to Ireland while tempers cooled. The Pope still had to take care not to drive him into the party of the Emperor, and as all parties now desired a settlement, peace was made and Henry was reconciled to the Church on May 21,at Avranches.
He promised to give up any customs which had been introduced in his time against the Church and to permit appeals from the Church courts in England to the Pope's court. The appeals were allowed from that date to the Reformation. The problem of "criminous clerks" was settled by a compromise in Broadly speaking, Henry conceded the point disputed with Thomas in return for the right to judge clergy accused of forest crimes. Rebellion of By Henry seemed to have overcome all opposition.
But in that year he had to meet rebellion and attack from all sides, partly as the result of his high-handed treatment of his own family. He had been constantly unfaithful to his proud wife, and he gave his sons, now growing up, titles but no power and no independent income.
But Henry had some warning he had spies in his eldest son's household ; he also had effective, paid soldiers and loyal, capable officials. His wife was captured and the rebels defeated. The Scottish king, defeated and imprisoned, had to make humiliating concessions to gain his freedom Treaty of Falaise, December In France too his prestige had never been greater.
He made generous terms with his sons; the king of France was cowed.
Thomas Becket and Henry II
The king of Sicily sought his daughter Joanna in marriage; the kings of Castile and Navarre chose him to arbitrate between them in But his sons were dissatisfied and jealous, always ready to fly to arms and to ally with the most dangerous enemy of their house, the young king of France, Philip II.
Philip had many grievances against the king of England, and he exploited the situation for his own advantage. The heir to the throne, Henry "the young king," died while in rebellion against his father June 11, ; the new heir, Richard, opposed by force Henry's plan to endow his youngest son, John, with Aquitaine.
Finally both allied with Philip against their father, who was forced to make a humiliating peace and died 2 days later July 6, He was buried in the abbey church of Fontevrault, where his effigy remains. Administration and Justice The most constructive and enduring part of Henry's work lay in England.
The offices of the Archbishop were rich and powerful and through his offices as confidant to the Archbishop, Thomas was awarded the archdeaconry of Canterbury. King Henry thought Thomas to be his loyal friend and wanted him in an influential position inside the church.
Opposition from the church was fierce. The Archbishop was meant to be a monk and those monks of Canterbury Cathedral Priory were extremely reluctant to have this financier appointed to this highest office but the King was insistent and they reluctantly acquiesced.
He was ordained a priest and the next day consecrated Archbishop. Certainly Becket wanted to prove to those churchmen who had opposed his consecration that he was capable of being the best Archbishop of Canterbury there had ever been but was it necessary that in order to achieve that he had to oppose the King? Certainly Henry was bewildered by his actions, his campaign for the canonization of Anselm, a monk archbishop, who had been determined to defy Kings, was a quite outrageous action and Becket continued to seek out points of principle and actions that would fly in the face of the Kings wishes.
It was as if Becket set out to draw out and antagonize the King. That hurt soon turned to anger and as Thomas Becket pushed so the King began to push back and the quarrels intensified. Henry and Thomas saw fit to use the matter of the Benefit of Clergy to bring matters to a head between them. Thomas publically accepted these constitutions only to renounce them later. An infuriated Henry brought Becket to face trial on trumped up charges and his estates removed from him but Becket realising that his time may be up fled for the continent where he remained for six years.
He excommunicated three bishops who took their complaints to the King. King Henry was furious and uttered the immortal words: The shock of such a murder reverberated throughout chistendom Whatever Thomas Becket had achieved in his life to oppose the authority of the monarch, was of no match compared to what he achieved with his death.
His death was his triumph.