Fruits high in potassium and sodium relationship

10 Foods High in Potassium | Everyday Health

fruits high in potassium and sodium relationship

High-potassium foods are an essential part of any balanced diet. The mineral helps regulate your body's fluid levels, aids in muscular function and waste. Among them, high sodium intake was focused as a major risk factor to raise blood pressure. Potassium was also studied in relation to lowering blood pressure. The minerals sodium and potassium work together to balance the intake of potassium-rich foods, can lead to a buildup of sodium in your.

Not to mention, sweet potatoes provide nearly four times the RDI for vitamin A in just grams 3. Summary Potatoes and sweet potatoes are excellent sources of potassium. Beets are a deep red root vegetable with a naturally sweet flavor. Beets are also rich in folate and manganese. Plus, the pigment that gives beets their rich color acts as an antioxidant, which may help fight oxidative damage and inflammation 11 Beets are also high in nitrates, which may improve blood vessel function, high blood pressure and exercise performance 1112 The potassium content of beets may also improve blood vessel function as well as decrease the risk of heart disease They also contain antioxidants and nitrate, which may provide further health benefits.

14 Healthy Foods That Are High in Potassium

Parsnips are a white root vegetable similar to carrots. Parsnips are also a good source of vitamin C and folatewhich are essential for skin and tissue health, cell division and preventing birth defects 16 Moreover, the soluble fiber found in parsnips may aid in reducing cholesterol levels They also contain vitamin C, folate and soluble fiber.

Spinach Spinach is a highly nutritious vegetable. These nutrients are important for metabolism, vision health, bone health and the immune system 2021 Leafy green vegetables like spinach are also full of antioxidants In one study of seven women, consuming a drink containing grams Summary Spinach is nutritious and a great source of potassium. It also provides other essential vitamins, minerals and healthy plant compounds. Swiss Chard Swiss chard is a leafy green vegetable with red or yellow stalks.

It is packed with nutrients. Like spinach and other leafy green vegetables, Swiss chard also contains healthy plant compounds that act as antioxidants to help protect your cells 26 Summary Swiss chard is a leafy green vegetable packed with nutrients. Tomato Sauce Tomatoes and tomato products, such as tomato sauce, are full of potassium.

Tomatoes are rich in other vitamins and minerals as well, including vitamins A, C, E, B6 and copper. In a small study of people with metabolic syndrome, drinking around 11 ounces ml of tomato juice four times a week for two months significantly improved inflammation, blood vessel dysfunction and insulin resistance The beneficial effects of potassium and lycopene on risk factors for heart disease make tomatoes a great choice for heart health 1.

Summary Tomatoes and tomato sauce are rich in several vitamins and minerals, including potassium. Oranges and Orange Juice Citrus fruits like oranges are well known for being high in vitamin C, but they are also a good source of potassium. It is also rich in folate, vitamin A, thiamine and antioxidants 323334 Observational studies have found that people who regularly consume orange juice may be more likely to meet vitamin and mineral needs and follow a healthier diet.

They are also less likely to be obese or have metabolic syndrome And consuming orange juice fortified with calcium and vitamin D may help improve bone health — especially since a high intake of potassium may benefit bone health as well 1 However, orange juice is much higher in sugar and lower in fiber than whole oranges. Oranges and orange juice are rich in other vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, as well.

Bananas are famous as a good source of potassium. This tasty fruit is also rich in vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese, magnesium, fiber and antioxidants Ripe bananas tend to be higher in sugar than other fruits. However, green bananas are low in sugar and high in resistant starch, which may help control blood sugar and improve gut health 44 Banana flakes or green bananas may also be an effective home remedy for diarrhea 46 Summary Bananas are known for being a good source of potassium.

Avocados Avocados are extremely nutritious, tasty and unique. They are high in heart-healthy monounsaturated fats and very rich in fiber, antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin B6, folate and pantothenic acid 4849 Avocados are also a good source of potassium. The high content of antioxidants, healthy fats and fiber in avocados is most likely responsible for their effects on health. Studies have shown that avocados may be beneficial for heart health, weight management and metabolic syndrome 50 This gender difference was not consistent in previous studies.

The DASH-sodium and TOHP-1 trials were among subjects with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension and thus results from these studies could not directly compared with our findings. A Japanese study suggested a possible mechanism for gender difference between sodium intake and blood pressure; there may be no gender difference in salt-sensitivity and more decrease of plasma rennin activity after NaCl load in men than in women may make different blood pressure elevation between men and women [ 29 ].

Potassium and blood pressure hypothesis is that high potassium intake may have beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure [ 23 ] and it may be through increasing sodium excretion and decreasing calcium excretion [ 5 ].

However, there was no inverse relationship of potassium intake with blood pressure in the present study. It was consistent with the findings of previous Korean studies [ 1425 ]. These results could be due to potassium source foods, vegetables, which were mainly eaten with salt or salty seasonings. Koreans frequently have various Kimchies pickled in salt and also have a lot of cooked or raw vegetables with salt or salty seasonings such as soy sauce, soybean paste, or red pepper paste.

Recently, sodium to potassium ratio, rather than sodium and potassium itself, was recommended [ 4 ]. This positive relation among men was not found among women. The Dallas Heart Study also cross-sectionally demonstrated gender difference that the DBP increase was higher in men than in women per 3-unit increase in urinary sodium to potassium ratio [ 30 ].

Despite general recommendation of fruits and vegetables, there were not many epidemiologic studies on the effect of fruits and vegetables on blood pressure. There were some well-known clinical trials using diet rich in fruits and vegetables [ 2832 ].

The most well-known trial is the DASH [ 28 ], which showed that the fruits and vegetables diet reduced systolic blood pressure by 2. Although the DASH trial was carried out among adults with borderline high blood pressure and showed beneficial effect, this study suggests the possibility that dietary pattern relatively rich in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial, but salty vegetables may be harmful on blood pressure.

The mechanisms of beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables are still unclear. Potassium, calcium, and magnesium, which are rich in fruits and vegetables, may reduce blood pressure [ 3334 ]. In addition, the DASH may lower blood pressure, beyond those minerals and fiber, possibly by antioxidants and isoflavones [ 35363738 ].

In addition, the fruits consumption was linearly related to DBP for men. However, it was not explained by the potassium effect and by the calcium and fiber effect, because potassium was highly correlated with sodium and calcium and fiber was considered as confounders.

Thus, this study also could expect the possible effect of antioxidants or isoflavones like the DASH study. Therefore, further study on other components of fruits and vegetables other than potassium, calcium, and fiber involved in reduction of blood pressure is needed.

The Role of Potassium and Sodium in Your Diet

In the present study, the gender difference in the relationship between fruits consumption and blood pressure was found. The positive relationship between fruits consumption and SBP for women may be explained by high content of fructose in fruits, which may induce hypertension [ 39 ].

However, the female sex hormone may play an important role in the prevention of hypertension secondary to insulin resistance [ 39 ] and thus fructose could not explain the gender difference in this study, although the high proportion of women Therefore, further studies are needed to confirm this finding and the possible mechanisms.

We did not find beneficial effect of raw vegetables among men and women, and harmful effect of fruits among women, in contrast to beneficial effect among men. The non-significant finding in raw vegetables may be inferred from a unique Korean culture that most vegetables are cooked with salty seasonings. The inverse relation of fruits to blood pressure among men in the present study was in agreement with the KNHANES III finding showing that fruit intake estimated by a 24 hour recall was negatively associated with SBP among subjects with metabolic syndrome [ 26 ].

This anti-hypertensive effect of fruits may be through antioxidant vitamins, fiber content, favonols, anthocyanins, and procyanindins [ 40 ]. Meanwhile, because the experimental studies suggested that an acute effect of fructose raise blood pressure [ 41 ], fructose from fruits may explain the positive relation of fruits among women.

However, the conflicting effect of antioxidants and fructose in fruits on blood pressure could not explain the gender-difference in the relationship between fruits and blood pressure. Several limitations should be considered to interpret results in the present study.

First, because this study design was cross-sectional, we cannot conclude the causality in the present study. Second, the relatively low coverage of sodium intake from the food-based FFQ not including most seasonings is the important limitation to interpret the findings, although, as we described in the above, the FFQ in the present study included most of sodium source.

The validity of dietary sodium intake using dietary assessment methods, regardless of 24 hour recalls, records, and FFQ, may be low. Therefore, the relation we found in the present study should be confirmed in a large prospective study using more valid sodium and potassium assessment methods. Third, Korean diet is complicate to study on sodium intake and blood pressure due to various sources of sodium such as homemade seasonings and due to common sources of beneficial and harmful effect such as vegetables with salty seasonings.

Thus, it was difficult to dissociate the effects of highly correlated nutrients with each other on blood pressure. Therefore, the intervention studies using Korean diet separating beneficial and harmful components and using low salt Kimchies and vegetables on blood pressure are needed.

The present study findings suggest that dietary recommendation should be culture-sensitive and in the aspect of public health, low salt Kimchies and vegetables should be recommended to prevent hypertension. Global burden of hypertension: J Am Diet Assoc. World Health Organization; Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. N Engl J Med. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: Am J Clin Nutr.

The Role of Potassium and Sodium in Your Diet | CDC

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fruits high in potassium and sodium relationship

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans. The Korean Nutrition Society; Oxford Universtiy Press; Dietary protein and blood pressure: The effect of nutrition on blood pressure.

fruits high in potassium and sodium relationship

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Foods That Are High In Potassium - Health

Relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and calcium, anthropometric indexes, and blood pressure in young and middle aged Korean adults. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. Effects of age and sex on sodium chloride sensitivity: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol.

Relationship of urinary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio to blood pressure in older adults in Australia. Intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products in early childhood and subsequent blood pressure change. Effect of short-term supplementation of potassium chloride and potassium citrate on blood pressure in hypertensives. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: Combined calcium, magnesium and potassium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.

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