Staff and line - Wikipedia
single definition can capture all the facets of management. That is why, it is often said .. organisation are lower or front-line, middle and top management. TOP LEVEL .. ӹ maintaining cordial relations with employees; ӹ recognition and .. cope with them. In this respect, organizations are similar to biological organisms. Staff and line are names given to different types of functions in organizations. A " line function" is For example, human resources, accounting, public relations and the legal department are generally considered to be staff functions. Both terms. However, this article will explore the issue of client relationships and ethical .. Professional helpers don't have a biological organ like the placenta to do this.
The cost—benefit results from the focus on high-risk individuals who had higher medical costs and were absent more from work K. Pelletier, ; Serxner et al. The outcomes were reduced absenteeism as well as fewer hospitalizations and doctor visits.
Other studies found no significant differences in healthcare costs between those who participated in any one wellness program during a year time-frame with those who did not participate Aldana et al. The findings, however, again indicated a significant negative association between participation and absenteeism, with nonparticipants having a higher rate of absenteeism than employees who participated in any one program during the one-year period. A recent meta-evaluation on worksite health-promotion ROI found that despite many design and measurement inconsistencies, there were strong reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, workers' compensation, and disability insurance Chapman, One meta-analysis mentioned was by Baicker, Cuttler and Song.
Instead, he recommended the use of cost trends. Health as a complex concept What the research in this area lacks is consideration for the complexity of health and health behaviors beyond a focus on disease. Another concern is that combining disease management with wellness initiatives makes it difficult to determine the effectiveness.
In addition, this attention perpetuates a disease mentality that focuses on individual medical conditions and physical health risks alone. Literature supports that sustained health behaviors are not accomplished without consideration of other determining factors, including other dimensions of health in addition to the physical as well as social determinants of health.
There are the models of other health dimensions besides physical health, such as Five Dimensions by O'Donnell that includes physical, spiritual, emotional, social, occupation, and intellectual; Hettler's Six Dimensions of Health that includes occupation; and Rath and Harter dimensions of career, physical, financial, community, and social.
These dimensions are rarely ever considered in most workplace wellness programs, and when they are considered it's without any level of significance. Keyes and Grzywacz emphasize that not doing so cannot lead to complete health. Their research indicates that complete health balances the absence of morbidity with the presence of well-being.
Pelletier cited the importance of the impact of corporate culture, including supervisor and co-worker support for improved health status. Few of the interventions cited here focused on the physical, psychological, or policy work environment and its role in employee health … it is evident that employees need to know that their organization is seriously concerned about their health … Employees need to perceive that their senior management, supervisors, and co-workers have positive attitudes toward health since these factors have all been associated with improved employee health status.
Interventions and evaluations of workplace programs may benefit from including such components and measures of the work environment in order to determine the influence of such factors on the overall clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Pelletier,p.
Simply focusing on individual responsibility for health and adopting healthier behaviors ignore the influence of contextual factors that shape behaviors Cherniack, ; Goetzel et al. Dee Edington Terry, captured this sentiment when he stated: Behavior change is really the mantra of wellness, but if a person achieves a lifestyle behavior change, only to return to the same unhealthy environment, what can we expect will happen?
Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory SDT suggests that humans have a basic need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and also tendencies toward growing, mastering challenges, and integrating new experiences with support and barriers. Essential to the theory is the workplace in terms of these supports and barriers. SDT propositions focus on how social and cultural factors facilitate or undermine people's sense of volition and initiative, in addition to their well-being and the quality of their performance http: Similarly, Pink found that employees desire autonomy, mastery, and meaning over money or other extrinsic rewards.
At this level, wellness programs move beyond health risks, individual focus and healthcare cost savings, to create thriving and prosperity for individuals and organizations. Deci noted that there are hundreds of scientific studies which have demonstrated that autonomous behavior results in more creativity, problem-solving, more positive emotions and better physical and psychological health. By doing so, places the responsibility solely on individual employees, virtually ignoring the impact that the working environment may have on health and unhealthy behaviors.
Pearson and Porath researched the prevalence of these uncivil behaviors for the past decade. In fact, when testing their model of healthy organizations, Wilson et al. Conclusions from their study on physical environmental changes to support exercise, Blunt and Hallam acknowledged that organizational social support is important to individuals' perception of the environment and the need for future research to address this aspect. Determining factors for health From this perspective health is not just a biophysical condition, but a dynamic process that includes a social component.
Health and health behaviors are entwined with well-being and grounded within the social context of living.
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Health cannot be broken down into components, but must be understood from this comprehensive and holistic definition. Using a social ecological framework instead of individual behavior change models supports this understanding.
In addition to individual change, addressing the physical and the social workplace environment needs to be considered for sustainable health practices. With this consideration, workplace health promotion cannot be effective by focusing on individual risk factors alone, such as reducing blood pressure or cholesterol levels, increasing physical activity, or reducing obesity. Instead, the broader components need to be addressed, including the physical and social issues of the workplace that may influence health and health behaviors.
This broader focus is not to deny individual responsibility, but only to establish the need to consider additional influential factors. What is striking is that behavior change initiatives are primarily focused on a medical disease model of finding and treating pathogenic conditions. This attempts to reduce health to an absence of disease without regard to overall well-being and determining factors that influence health behaviors.
Although education remains important, health education is not a monolithic activity DiClemente et al. This scope moves beyond the definitions currently popular in worksite wellness programs. The best known definition in the profession of health promotion — which has remained championed from its inception — is that health is an optimal state or balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual and intellectual health O'Donnell, These definitions imply that health is more than just being disease-free; however, the definitions also indicate health as a state or condition, without consideration for the dynamic and complex aspects of health.
Also, as stated earlier in this article, it is the physical dimension of health that garners the most emphasis. The broader definition of health shifts the focus from a medical model and disease risk factors to intersect with well-being. In their studies, questions such as rating ones health as poor, fair, good, or excellent, and rating one's health in comparison to others with similar demographics were more predictive of health status than objective health measures such as blood pressure, blood cholesterol, exercise, or even weight.
Ryff and Singer provided a concise summary of well-being as an umbrella term, which encompasses the UNESCO's definition and describes health and well-being using three principles: Health is not a medical question but a philosophical position pertaining to the meaning of the good life for each individual.
Health includes the interconnection of mind and body. Health is multidimensional and dynamic process; that is an engagement in living and is an expression of human potential of intellect, social, emotional, and physical.
From this broader perspective, well-being and health are used interchangeably. This runs parallel with the current emphasis in the field of psychology on helping individuals thrive and flourish.
This is a change from a disease and risk-based approach, an important and interesting note since the wellness behavior change models are based on psychology and medical models. Termed as Positive Psychology, the approach considers how three critical dimensions of life experience — pleasure, engagement and meaning — combine to create life satisfaction.
It is reasonable to suggest that the characteristics of workplace relationships found in this current study and the character strengths found in the positive psychology literature are connected in some way. The empirical findings show that the character strengths are valued by adults around the world, including all states within the USA.
The most commonly endorsed strengths are kindness, fairness, authenticity, gratitude, and open-mindedness, and the lesser strengths consistently included prudence, modesty, and self-regulation. It is not a stretch to realize the impact of these strengths on health and well-being. Surprisingly, the complexity and social aspects of health as well as health behaviors, leading to sustainable healthy lifestyle changes were originally the intent of the Surgeon General Report U.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, A social ecological framework provides the justification for exploring the influence of interpersonal determining factors on health and health behaviors within workplace interactions. Study purpose Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to understand how employees perceived their workplace interactions as helping or hindering their perception of well-being, and how these interactions influenced health behavior practices Mastroianni, This is just one slice of determining factors that may influence health behaviors.
Qualitative inquiry was the selected research methodology since it provided the methods to examine social phenomena and individual relationships within their naturally occurring environments. Conceptual frameworks Two conceptual frameworks support this approach.
Staff and line
In other words, this accepted framework for understanding health suggests that health is a multidimensional construct involving the individual person AND the social and physical environments surrounding the person.
This model is ontologically aligned with the social ecology model, and is used in this study to analyze employee work relationships. Social ecology model As previously mentioned, a social ecology model considers the determining factors on health and health behaviors, allowing for methods to address not just individual risk factors, but the social and contextual influences on both Stokols, In fact, DeJoy and Wilson coined the term organizational health promotion to expand the concept of workplace health-promotion programs beyond a focus on individual employees.
This supports the impact that organizational structure, work operations, and social climate have on employee health and performance. Social ecology provides an integrative framework, that is, a comprehensive approach to address these determining factors of health and health behavior. This is not to discount individual responsibility for health and healthy lifestyle choices, but only to acknowledge the complexity of health and healthy behaviors.
The ecological model is based on the premise that health is a product of interdependence between individuals and several sociocultural systems Green et al. When viewing health and health behavior as complex systems within an ecological framework, providing individuals with motivation and skills to change behavior cannot be effective if environments and policies make it difficult or impossible to choose healthful behaviors.
Communities of practice One way to understand the social interactions in organizations is through the lens of CoP. Taylor recommended that there should be functionalisation even at the shop level where workers have to produce goods. He felt that the usual practice of putting one foreman incharge of some 40 to 50 workers should be avoided.
Every worker in the organisation is directly connected with these foremen.
Session 2. Structure of an organization
The eight specialist foremen are: The first four bosses operate from Planning Department, whereas the other four are known as Executive Functional Bosses. They function in the production department. A brief explanation of these eight functional foremen is given below: He lays down the exact path or route to be followed by raw material transforming it into finished product.
He prepares detailed instructions to be followed in doing the work as per the route laid down by the route clerk.
He determines the total time to be taken in the completion of a product and also works out the cost of production per unit and total cost.
He prepares various work schedules and cost sheets in order to have proper control over time and cost incurred in producing goods. He is responsible for maintaining proper discipline in the organisation. In fact, he is the guardian of orderliness in the factory. In the words of Kimball and Kimball Jr.
He initiates a proper code of conduct in the organisation. He makes the availability of different machines and tools required by workers to carry out their work. He also provides various production designs, drawings, raw materials etc. He controls the speed of different machines operating in the organisation. He sometimes demonstrates the workers the proper speed with which the machines should operate.
He undertakes proper supervision over speed of machines. He is concerned with proper maintenance and repairs of machines for keeping them in working order.
He checks and certifies the quality of work i. Achievement of pre-set standards is confirmed by the inspector. He develops the feeling of quality consciousness among the workers. In order to carry out his job effectively, an inspector must possess proper knowledge and the technicalities involved in quality control. While developing the concept of Functional Foremanship, F. Taylor suggested that it is unscientific to overload a foreman with entire responsibility of running a department.
He advocated that direction of work should be decided by functions and not be mere authority. He thought that to be successful in performing his duties a foreman should possess various qualities viz. Spriegel has nicely explained Functional Organization.
The whole work in the organisation is divided in various departments. Similar type of work and transactions are put in one department under the control of a departmental manager or head.
Various departments are also known as functional areas of management viz. The respective managers of these departments will be responsible for carrying out various activities of their departments in the organisation. For example, marketing manager will be responsible for carrying out marketing activities and personnel manager will be responsible for looking after the personnel matters in all the departments of the organisation. The underlying idea of functional organisation at the top level of management is that a subordinate anywhere in the organization will be controlled and commanded directly by number of managers operating in different departments.
Advantages of functional organisation. Following are the main benefits derived from functional organisation: This system derives the benefits of specialisation. As every functional incharge is an expert in his area, he will guide using his specialisation and with the help of the subordinates, try to attain the specified objectives.
This type of organisation ensures enhanced efficiency as the workers operate under the expert and competent personnel and perform limited operations. The functional foremen have to carry out the limited number of duties concerning their area of work.
Client Relationships and Ethical Boundaries for Social Workers in Child Welfare - butaivilniuje.info
This considerably reduces the burden of work and makes possible for the foreman to carry out the work in the best possible manner. Functional organisation offers a great scope for expansion of business enterprise without any dislocation and loss of efficiency as each man grows on account of his own speciality.
It is flexible pattern of organisation. A change in organisation can be made without disturbing the whole organisation. In the words of Louis A. Despite the above advantages, this type of organization suffers from the following disadvantages: It creates several bosses instead of one line authority. It leads to conflict and confusion in the minds of the workers to whom they should obey and whom they should ignore. Difficulty in pinpointing responsibility: There arises a tendency for shirking of responsibility.
This pattern of organisation is quite impracticable and expensive. Multiplicity of experts increases the overhead expenditure.
The small organisations cannot afford to install such a system. Discipline among the workers as well as lower supervisory staff is difficult to maintain as they are required to work under different bosses and this may hamper the progress of the organisation.
Appointment of several experts in the organisation creates the problem of co-ordination and delay in decision-making especially when a decision requires the involvement of more than one specialist. Line and Staff Organisation: The line and staff organisation is an improvement over the above mentioned two systems viz, line organisation and functional organisation. The line organisation concentrates too much on control whereas the functional system divides the control too much.
The need was, therefore, for a system that will ensure a proper balance between the two. The need has been fulfilled by line and staff organisation. The system like line organisation also owes its birth to army. The commanders in the field who are line officers are assisted by the staff that helps them in formulating strategies and plans by supplying valuable information. Similarly in organisation, line officers get the advice of the staff which is very helpful in carrying on the task in an efficient manner.
Line officers are usually assisted by staff officers in effectively solving various business problems. The staff is usually of three types viz: This includes the personal staff attached to Line Officers. For example, personal assistant to general manager, secretary to manager etc. The personal staff renders valuable advice and assistance to Line Officers.
This category includes various experts possessing specialised knowledge in different fields like accounting, personnel, law, marketing, etc. They render specialised service to the organisation. For example, a company may engage a lawyer for rendering legal advice on different legal matters.
Similarly, it may engage a chartered accountant and a cost accountant for tackling accounting problems. This comprises of various experts in different areas who render valuable advice to the top management on different matters requiring expert advice.
This type of organisation is based on planned specialisation and brings about the expert knowledge for the benefit of the management. Staff specialists help the line manager in taking better decisions by providing them adequate information of right type at right time. Lesser Burden on line officers: The work of the line officers is considerably reduced with the help of staff officers.
Technical problems and specialised matters are handled by the Staff and the routine and administrative matters are the concern of Line Officers. As the work under this type of organisation is carried out by experts, they constantly undertake the research and experimentation for the improvement of the product.
New and economical means of production are developed with the help of research and experimentation. Training for line officer: Staff services have proved to be an excellent training medium for Line Officers.
Disadvantages of Line and Staff Organisation: Conflict between line and staff authorities: There may be chances of conflict between line and staff authorities. Line Officers resent the activities of staff members on the plea that they do not always give correct advice.