Tomato and potato relationship test

tomato and potato relationship test

potato bouquet and beet ringspot viruses are strains of tomato black ring virus. Tomato black Two kinds of tests group such virus isolates as related strains or. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition ) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) (Ribeiro et al., ; Souza-Dias et al. The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. .. Edible Solanaceae such as eggplants, tomatoes, potatoes, and peppers also contain nicotine, but at concentrations ~,–1,, . Cladogram showing the relationship between some species of the subfamily Solanoideae.

April Learn how and when to remove this template message Illustration of Solanum dulcamara1.

They can be annualsbiennialsor perennialsupright or decumbent. Some have subterranean tubers. They do not have laticifersnor latexnor coloured saps. They can have a basal or terminal group of leaves or neither of these types. The leaves are generally alternate or alternate to opposed that is, alternate at the base of the plant and opposed towards the inflorescence.

The leaves can be herbaceous, leathery, or transformed into spines. The leaves are generally petiolate or subsessile, rarely sessile. They are frequently inodorous, but on occasions, they are aromatic or fetid.

The foliar lamina can be either simple or compound, and the latter can be either pinnatifid or ternate. The leaves have reticulated venation and lack a basal meristem. The laminae are generally dorsiventral and lack secretory cavities.

tomato and potato relationship test

The stomata are generally confined to one of a leaf's two sides; they are rarely found on both sides. The flowers are generally hermaphroditesalthough some are monoeciousandromonoeciousor dioecious species such as some Solanum or Symonanthus. The flowers can be solitary or grouped into terminal, cymose, or axillary inflorescences. The flowers are medium-sized, fragrant Nicotianafetid Anthocercisor inodorous. The flowers are usually actinomorphicslightly zygomorphicor markedly zygomorphic for example, in flowers with a bilabial corolla in Schizanthus species.

Solanaceae - Wikipedia

The irregularities in symmetry can be due to the androeciumto the perianthor both at the same time. In the great majority of species, the flowers have a differentiated perianth with a calyx and corolla with five sepals and five petals, respectively an androecium with five stamens and two carpels forming a gynoecium with a superior ovary [7] they are therefore referred to as pentamers and tetracyclic.

The stamens are epipetalous and are typically present in multiples of four or five, most commonly four or eight. They usually have a hypogynous disk.

The calyx is gamosepalous as the sepals are joined together forming a tubewith the 4 5 6 segments equal, it has five lobes, with the lobes shorter than the tube, it is persistent and often accrescent. The corolla usually has five petals that are also joined together forming a tube. Flower shapes are typically rotate wheel-shaped, spreading in one plane, with a short tube or tubular elongated cylindrical tubecampanulated or funnel-shaped. The androecium has 2 4 5 6 free stamens within it, oppositsepals that is, they alternate with the petalsthey are usually fertile or, in some cases for example in Salpiglossideae they have staminodes.

In the latter case, there is usually either one staminode Salpiglossis or three Schizanthus. The anthers touch on their upper end forming a ring, or they are completely free, dorsifixed, or basifixed with poricide dehiscence or through small longitudinal cracks.

The stamens can be inserted inside the coralline tube or exserted. The plants demonstrate simultaneous microsporogenesis, the microspores are tetrad, tetrahedral, or isobilateral. The pollen grains are bicellular at the moment of dehiscence, usually open and angular. The gynoecium is bicarpelar rarely three- or five-locular with a superior ovary and two loculeswhich may be secondarily divided by false septaas is the case for Nicandreae and Datureae.

They have one style and one stigma ; the latter is simple or bilobate.

Solanaceae

Each locule has one to 50 ovules that are anatropous or hemianatropous with axillar placentation. The development of the embryo sack can be the same as for Polygonum or Allium species.

The three antipodes are usually ephemeral or persistent as in the case of Atropa. The fruit can be a berry as in the case of the tomato or wolfberry a dehiscent capsule as in Datura, or a drupe. The fruit has axial placentation. The capsules are normally septicidal or rarely loculicidal or valvate.

The seeds are usually endospermic, oily rarely starchyand without obvious hairs. The embryo can be straight or curved, and has two cotyledons. Diversity of characteristics[ edit ] Despite the previous description, the Solanaceae exhibit a large morphological variability, even in their reproductive characteristics.

Examples of this diversity include: However, Melananthus has a monocarpelar gynoecium, there are three or four carpels in Capsicumthree to five in Nicandrasome species of Jaborosa and Trianaea and four carpels in Iochroma umbellatum. The number of locules in the ovary The number of locules in the ovary is usually the same as the number of carpels.

However, some species occur in which the numbers are not the same due to the existence of false septa internal walls that subdivide each loculesuch as in Datura and some members of the Lycieae the genera Grabowskia and Vassobia. Type of ovules and their number The ovules are generally inverted, folded sharply backwards anatropousbut some genera have ovules that are rotated at right angles to their stalk campilotropous as in Phrodus, Grabowskia or Vassobiaor are partially inverted hemitropous as in CestrumCapsicum, Schizanthus and Lycium.

The number of ovules per locule also varies from a few two pairs in each locule in Grabowskia, one pair in each locule in Lycium and very occasionally only one ovule is in each locule as for example in Melananthus.

Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range

The type of fruit The fruits of the great majority of the Solanaceae are berries or capsules including pyxidia and less often drupes. Berries are common in the subfamilies Cestroideae, Solanoideae with the exception of Datura, Oryctus, Grabowskia and the tribe Hyoscyameae and the tribe Juanulloideae with the exception of Markea.

Capsules are characteristic of the subfamilies Cestroideae with the exception of Cestrum and Schizanthoideae, the tribes Salpiglossoideae and Anthocercidoideae, and the genus Datura. The tribe Hyoscyameae has pyxidia. Drupes are typical of the Lycieae tribe and in Iochrominae. Alkaloids[ edit ] Alkaloids are nitrogenous organic substances produced by plants as a secondary metabolite and which have an intense physiological action on animals even at low doses.

tomato and potato relationship test

To humans, these alkaloids can be desirable, toxic, or both. The tropanes are the most well-known of the alkaloids found in the Solanaceae. Fruit types are sometimes considered to be evolutionarily conservative Spujt, and are thus given a high taxonomic weight. Recent studies, however, using phylogenetic methods, have shown that, in many families of angiosperms, fruit type is highly homoplasious i.

tomato and potato relationship test

Homology is of critical importance in the assessment of characters for phylogenetic analysis, for example, in the Melastomataceae, soft berries are anatomically quite variable and have arisen from the development of fleshiness of different parts of the developing ovary Clausing et al.

The accurate interpretation of fruit types is also important, in some groups it has been found that fruits previously thought to be berries i.

tomato and potato relationship test

Fruits are more than simply characteristics of angiosperms—they are the means by which seeds are dispersed and as such are clearly under strong selective pressure. Fruit type, however, is not the only important fruit trait that potentially affects seed dispersal.

This paradigm had much in common with that thought to be controlling plant—pollinator interactions, which do indeed show such tight and specific relationships. It has sometimes been assumed that differences in quality of seed dispersal can fully explain variation in fruit traits Schupp, Recent studies have also failed to corroborate the assumption that differences in quality determine fruit trait variation Cipollini and Levey, a.

Fruit quality, however, is important to frugivores, and will affect seed dispersal in some way. Quality can be assessed in a variety of ways using protein or fat content McKey,caloric value or levels of secondary metabolites Cipollini and Levey, a. This latter measurement of fruit quality is often not considered, but toxins in fruit are of great importance not only to natural frugivores, but to humans who cultivate fruits for their own purposes. Solanaceae contain many taxa of importance, both agronomically potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and medicinally mandrake, tobacco, deadly nightshade, henbane.

Members of the family occur worldwide, but the highest species diversity is found in the Neotropics.

tomato and potato relationship test

The family is very diverse, both in terms of life form, with species ranging from ephemeral herbs Leptoglossis and Schizanthus of the Chilean deserts to large forest trees Duckeodendron of the Amazonand in flower morphology Knapp, a. Taxonomic work in the family largely proceeded at the generic level and the last complete treatment was that of Dunal Recently, Hunziker has provided a complete treatment of the family at the generic level, including a new classification system. In recent years, three advances have contributed significantly to the understanding of the relationships of flowering plants: Systematic studies in the Solanaceae have benefited greatly from these advances, with phylogenetic studies being published for a variety of genera and species groups Knapp, ; Mione et al.

Duckeodendron, Fay et al. Molecular studies have also shown that the tomatoes, previously recognized as the segregate genus Lycopersicon Mill.

Some disagreement still exists as to the utility of these new classifications Hunziker, ; Chetelat, personal communicationbut as more gene sequences from both the chloroplast and the nucleus are analysed, the results are being shown to be robust L Bohs, personal communication; RG Olmstead, personal communication. Although differences in taxonomic arrangement are perceived as being disruptive in the short term, the robustness of phylogenetic hypotheses allows the accurate and rigorous examination of character evolution, thus leading to a better understanding of how members of the family have evolved and are related.

Floral morphology in Solanum follows a basic radially symmetrical plan but see Knapp,aand solanums in flower are remarkably easy to recognize.

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Several segregate genera traditionally treated, apart from Solanum, have recently been found to be nested within the genus and those species have been formally transferred Spooner et al. In the discussions here, these species are treated as part of the larger, monophyletic Solanum.

In this paper, the patterns of fruit evolution in the economically important family Solanaceae are examined using a recently published molecular phylogeny Fay et al.

This examination in a phylogenetic framework is used specifically to address the following questions: In addition, there will be a close examination of fruit type diversity and fruit chemistry in the large genus Solanum, where greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of fruit development gained from studies of agronomically important crops may help in the understanding of evolutionary patterns, particularly in relation to fruit dispersal modes.

Materials and methods Solanaceae: Duckeodendron is included here in the Olmstead et al. The phylogenetic classification presented in Olmstead et al. In Table 2 the Olmstead et al. Each of the monophyletic groupings has also been given an informal name i.