Overgrazing | butaivilniuje.info
Desertification is mainly a problem of sustainable development. Its causes include over-cropping, over-grazing, improper irrigation practices. Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes . Many scientists think that one of the most common causes is overgrazing, too Some countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to counter its effects, particularly in relation to the protection of endangered flora and fauna. The potential impacts of desertification on health include: higher threats of malnutrition from reduced food and water supplies;; more water- and food-borne .
What is the relationship of overgrazing to desertification?
There is a suggestion that the last time that the Sahara was converted from savanna to desert it was partially due to overgrazing by the cattle of the local population. Decision-makers are understandably averse to invest in arid zones with low potential. This absence of investment contributes to the marginalisation of these zones. When unfavourable agro-climatic conditions are combined with an absence of infrastructure and access to markets, as well as poorly adapted production techniques and an underfed and undereducated population, most such zones are excluded from development.
This results in mass migrations out of rural areas and into urban areas, particularly in Africa.
These migrations into the cities often cause large numbers of unemployed people, who end up living in slums. The increase in desertification in theses regions has degraded the land enough where people can no longer productively farm and make a profit. This has negatively impacted the economy and increased poverty rates. For some, there are numerous barriers to their implementation.
Yet for others, the solution simply requires the exercise of human reason. One less difficult solution that has been proposed,  however controversial it may be, is to bring about a cap on the population growth, and in fact to turn this into a population decay, so that each year there will gradually exist fewer and fewer humans who require the land to be depleted even further in order to grow their food.
One proposed barrier is that the costs of adopting sustainable agricultural practices sometimes exceed the benefits for individual farmers, even while they are socially and environmentally beneficial. Some countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to counter its effects, particularly in relation to the protection of endangered flora and fauna. Environmental organizations  work in places where deforestation and desertification are contributing to extreme poverty.
There they focus primarily on educating the local population about the dangers of deforestation and sometimes employ them to grow seedlings, which they transfer to severely deforested areas during the rainy season.
This wall is a much larger-scale version of what American farmers did in the s to stop the great Midwest dust bowl. This plan was proposed in the late s, and has become a major ecological engineering project that is not predicted to end until the year According to Chinese reports, there have been nearly 66,, trees planted in China's great green wall. Fixating the soil is often done through the use of shelter beltswoodlots and windbreaks.
Windbreaks are made from trees and bushes and are used to reduce soil erosion and evapotranspiration. They were widely encouraged by development agencies from the middle of the s in the Sahel area of Africa. Some soils for example, claydue to lack of water can become consolidated rather than porous as in the case of sandy soils. The trenches are made parallel to the height lines of the landscape, preventing the water from flowing within the trenches and causing erosion.
What is the relationship of overgrazing to desertification? | Socratic
Stone walls are placed around the trenches to prevent the trenches from closing up again. The method was invented by Peter Westerveld.
Sand fences can also be used to control drifting of soil and sand erosion. The mycorrhiza are basically fungi attaching themselves to the roots of the plants.
They hereby create a symbiotic relation with the trees, increasing the surface area of the tree's roots greatly allowing the tree to gather much more nutrients from the soil. This problem is especially serious if the unwanted plants are thorny or poisonous.
Furthermore, if animals are allowed to graze on most grasses for too long before being moved, they can damage the root growth of the plants.
Just as when a lawn is mowed too short, the plants cannot generate enough energy through photosynthesis to grow. If its roots are too small during periods of drought, the plant is likely to die because it cannot access enough water. In this way, overgrazing can lead to the death of all the plants in a particular area, leaving the ground too dry and sterile to support new growth. Impacts and Issues Overgrazing is a serious problem because it harms both the environment and the animals it is intended to benefit.
Plants that have been overgrazed are less healthy because their carbohydrate reserves have been depleted. Food for grazing animals. The number of animals that a given area of land can support.
Low-growing plants suitable for grazing livestock or land containing such plants. Some pastureland is fenced, while some is part of the open range. All of these factors increase costs and decrease income for herders and ranchers, many of whom lack the financial reserves to weather hardship. Among the environmental costs of overgrazing is the destructive way in which it alters the ecosystem of grasslands.
By eating certain plants and not others, the balanced composition of the turf is altered. Some grazing animals will pull up plants by the roots if forced to feed in overgrazed pastures.
Plant roots are important soil stabilizers and removing them can lead to erosion of the most fertile topsoil. Erosion can also occur after overgrazed plants die off during drought. In extreme cases, overgrazing can lead to desertification, the process by which an ecosystem is transformed into a desert.
In China, geological studies have determined that overgrazing on the steppes directly led to the burial of fertile soils under desert sands about years ago, turning formerly productive land into unusable desert. It is also possible to directly observe the difference in climate between well-managed and overgrazed pasture land.Shocking Earth Fact
In many western states, ranchers pay for access to federal land on which they graze their herds. Furthermore, environmental groups have sued the federal governmentalleging environmental damage from overgrazing. In some instances, they have succeeded in halting grazing on federal land, further antagonizing the relationship between ranchers, regulatory bodies, and environmentalists.
Although all these groups agree that overgrazing is a dangerous problem, they differ on the definition of overgrazing. Ranchers become concerned that overly strict definitions of overgrazing will damage their livelihoods, while environmentalists worry that irreparable damage is being done by lax management of overgrazing Often the problems associated with overgrazing are particularly difficult to solve because they are the product of poverty and economic necessity rather than of IN CONTEXT: Another 65, people were reported to have been injured and more than 32, buildings collapsed.
Each increment of magnitude, for example from 7 to 8, corresponds to a ten-fold increase in seismic wave height and a thirty-two-fold increase in the amount of energy released. According to statistics compiled by the U. Geological Survey, there are on average fourteen earthquakes of magnitude 7. Thus, the Kashmir earthquake was a large but not unprecedented event.
- FACTBOX: Five facts about desertification
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Most of the deaths and injuries associated with the Kashmir earthquake occurred when buildings collapsed and buried their inhabitants. There were many reports of people swept away or buried by landslides during the days immediately after the earthquake.