The relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management
Self-awareness is one of the most important components of emotional intelligence. It can be attributed to success because you clearly know. Emotional intelligence is an umbrella term for various abilities to do with perceiving feelings accurately and responding to them appropriately. Emotional intelligence consists of four basic capabilities, or domains. These are: Self Awareness (this page); Self Regulation; Social Awareness; Relationship.
Was there a physical reaction, such as racing heart, sore neck and shoulders?
Make a list of your roles and write down the feeling connected to each role. You might be a brother, sister, employee, husband, wife, mother, father, sportsman or woman - think of as many as you can. Your feelings for each role might be happy, frustrated, anxious Predict how you will feel: Practice naming and accepting the feelings. You might say "I may feel angry", or "I may feel frustrated". Naming the feeling puts you in control.
Try to choose an appropriate reaction to the feeling rather than just reacting to it. Emotionally intelligent people plan to put time aside to build awareness. One way to do this is to meditate or reflect daily. This means that you plan to create a quiet space for yourself in the day, away from work or other activities, and spend time focusing on doing something that opens your mind to deeper thoughts.
Values, beliefs and assumptions Values are the principles, standards, morals, ethics and ideals that guide our lives. Knowing your values is an essential part of building awareness of yourself. Knowing your values is like following a well sign-posted road. You're comfortable and secure because you know where you are, you know where you're heading, and you're confident, relaxed and happy knowing you're on the right road.
Here's a great personal assessment I created to help you discover your values. Complete the other three parts of this assessment for a complete awareness building exercise. Assumptions Developing awareness of the assumptions we hold about others is an important aspect of emotional intelligence. One of the oldest laws in psychology holds that, beyond a moderate level, increases in anxiety and worry erode mental abilities. People who are upset thus have trouble reading emotions in others accurately, thereby decreasing their social skills.
Another consideration is that, according to a new finding on job satisfaction, the emotions that people feel while they work reflect their quality of work - when people feel good, they work at their best with increased levels of mental efficiency and hence demonstrate a more positive outlook.
Leaders often feel unsafe and as if they are under a microscope because their every action is scrutinised. This inhibits risk taking and experimentation.
In both this and other ways, leadership therefore becomes very stressful. Early studies show that, when people have a drive for power, that very desire for power has the same arousing effect as that of being under actual biological stress. When a person's stress levels increase, however, the body's stress hormones are released, thus hampering learning. Learning for leadership therefore works best under conditions where people feel safe Goleman et al. Furthermore, those who react with hardiness and who see work as exciting and as a chance to develop rather than seeing work as an enemy bear the burden of stress much better, indicating that, with the right emotional resources, that which seems threatening can be handled as a challenge and can be met with energy and enthusiasm Goleman, In 'bearing the burden of stress much better', it is crucial to understand stress.
All living organisms experience stress. Stress is perceived by individuals in the context of their own experience. It is a product of being alive. In essence, stress is any event that places a demand on the body, whether mentally or physically. In this study, the term 'cope' is used interchangeably with the term 'manage'. According to Lazarus and Folkmancoping refers to one's efforts to manage or control a situation that is viewed as either stressful, overtaxing or challenging to one's personal coping resources.Self Awareness Activities Top 5: Emotional Intelligence #3
According to Coxcoping is a form of problem-solving behaviour, while stress is the result of failed problem solving. Coping involves cognitive and behavioural strategies and represents either an adjustment to a situation or an adjustment of a situation. Coping is regarded as successful if the source of the problem is dealt with or if the experience of the stress is directly reduced. The researchers' conceptualisation of stress and its management therefore includes: According to Zeidner and Saklofskecoping in current psychological writings is viewed as an active process and as interacting with factors such as personality and stressmanagement skills.
This view is supported by the developers of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire OPQwhich indicates that certain combinations of extreme OPQ dimensions can be indicative of a generalised vulnerability and increased susceptibility to the negative effects of stress. Conversely, a greater degree of resilience can be inferred from the opposite trends in scores bipolar.
It can be seen from Figure 2 that personality is concerned with three main domains. The first of these, namely the relating domain, refers to how an individual relates to others.
It is characterised by traits such as assertiveness, outgoingness and empathy. The thinking domain refers to how an individual typically thinks and includes traits such as conservatism, abstract thinking and detail consciousness. The domain of feeling refers to emotions such as anxiety, tough-mindedness and optimism. There is potentially a fourth area - the energies domain - which comprises traits such as vigour, competitiveness and decisiveness.
The energies domain does, however, impinge on the other domains SHL, a. Particularly relevant to this study are the dimensions relating to general levels of anxiety and tension, proneness to worry excessively about specific events, sensitivity to criticism and hostility, optimism versus pessimism, and self-confidence or self-esteem. From these dimensions, it can be deduced that the following OPQ traits are applicable: In integrating emotional intelligence and stress management, it is important to note that individuals who react to stress with hardiness, who see work as strenuous but exciting and who see change as a chance to develop rather than as an enemy bear the physical burden of stress much better and experience fewer illnesses.
A paradox of working life is that situations are viewed differently. Some might see something as a devastating threat, while others might view it as an invigorating challenge. With the right emotional resources, what might seem threatening can be viewed instead as a challenge and be met with enthusiasm, thus allowing the brain to generate different chemicals. Chemicals that respond to stress and threat are different from those that respond to enthusiasm Goleman, As a person's stress increases, the body reacts by secreting more adrenaline and noradrenaline, the body's stress hormones.
Simultaneously, cortisol is secreted, which lasts even longer than adrenaline and, in addition, interferes with learning. This is exacerbated when stress is high and sustained as cortisol secretion continues, hampering learning by destroying essential brain cells in the hippocampus Goleman et al. In this study, the researchers focused specifically on the relationship between these two constructs in a managerial sample. The literature provided the following insights on the impact of the two constructs on the functioning of the manager or leader and on her or his subordinates.
Such negative emotions, especially chronic anger, anxiety or a sense of futility, can cause a disruption of work and of the task at hand. This can result in employees who are not upbeat and who do not have the drive to ensure customer satisfaction, which, in turn, can result in declining revenues.
Acknowledging that people work best when they feel good is crucial. It tends to make them feel more optimistic and enhances their mental efficiency, ensuring better understanding of information, flexible thinking, the ability to use good judgement in decision making, and creativity Goleman et al.
Throughout history and in all cultures, the leader in any group is the one to whom others look for assurance and clarity when facing uncertainty or a threat, or when there is a job to be done.
The leader tends to act as the group's emotional guide. This task applies to leadership everywhere, from the boardroom to the shop-floor. Quite simply, in any human group, the leader has maximum power to sway everyone's emotions.
If people's emotions are pushed towards the range of enthusiasm, performance can soar; if people are driven towards chaos and anxiety, they can become unsettled. When leaders drive emotions positively, they bring out everyone's best. When they drive emotions negatively, they cause dissonance, undermining the emotional foundations that allow people to excel. Whether an organisation withers or flourishes depends to a remarkable extent on the leader's effectiveness in this primal emotional dimension Goleman et al.
Furthermore, it is leaders who give praise or withhold it, criticise or not, offer support or not, guide people in the sense that they have clarity and direction, encourage flexibility and allow people free rein to do their best to get the job done or not.
People thus take their emotional cues from their leaders Goleman et al. Understanding emotions includes the ability to recognise relationships between emotions, to determine the meanings that emotions convey, to understand complex feelings and to recognise how emotions change from one state to another.
Understanding emotions is the ability that provides a leader with the information on what makes people tick. Distress not only erodes mental abilities but also makes people less emotionally intelligent. People who are upset have trouble reading emotions in other people accurately - decreasing the most basic skill needed for empathy and, as a result, impairing their social skills Goleman et al.
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Awareness
Aim of the research The general aim of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management in a group of managers. This was done using the research design discussed below. The hypothesis can be formulated as follows: There is no relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management.
RESEARCH DESIGN Research approach The research was a descriptive study aimed at quantitatively testing the hypothesis that a significant relationship exists between emotional intelligence and stress management by utilising measuring instruments that are capable of measuring the related factors.
Participants In order to have as large a sample as possible, a list of all employees who were considered for managerial positions was obtained from the personnel department in a South African financial institution.
A total of names was received. The realised sample, however, was due to a lack of response from some employees, resignations, incomplete information and employees who declined to partake in the study.
This method of sampling falls under the category of non-probability sampling, which means that the probability of a respondent being chosen is unknown. The advantage of the method is that it is not complicated and allows one to draw information from respondents who are available at the time.
The disadvantage is that, as a result, the final sample may not be fully representative and results may not be entirely generalisable to the population from which the sample is drawn Babbie, ; Bailey, The OPQ32i structure is based on the hypothesis that personality is concerned with three main areas, namely the relating domain, the thinking domain and the feeling domain. There is also a possible fourth domain, the energies domain. The normative item set was used in addition to the scale descriptions as an indicator of the ipsative item content.
This helped to ensure the similarity of content between the ipsative and normative questionnaires. Dimensions, administration and interpretation: The item pattern of OPQ32i places items in blocks of four quads. In each block of four, the task is to choose the item 'most like you' and the item 'least like you' SHL, b. The design has a total of blocks of 4 items items in total. Each scale has 13 items i. The item pattern is balanced to ensure that items from one scale will only be in the same block of four as an item from any other scale once or twice throughout the whole questionnaire SHL, Parallel or alternate-form reliability looks at the agreement between two parallel forms of a questionnaire.
A parallel-form estimate of reliability requires two versions of a questionnaire that measure the same constructs through the same approach. Both tests were completed in the same test session, the correlations ranging from 0. This shows a strong relationship between the scores on the two versions SHL, Internal consistency is the measure of the consistency with which a set of questionnaire items is answered.
Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used as a method of assessing internal consistency, with high values indicating a greater degree of accuracy in the scores, as well as generally more homogeneous scale content SHL, b.
Reliability coefficients of 0. If reliability drops below 0. The internal-consistency reliability study was conducted on the OPQ32i. The internal consistencies range from 0. Various aspects of validity include face validity, content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity SHL, b. Face validity is the degree to which a test or questionnaire appears to the untrained eye to have relevance to a particular job e.
The OPQ32 questionnaires have good face validity for occupational use, as the relevance of the questions and the scales to the style of performance can be seen by both candidates and managers SHL, Content validity refers to the similarity between the context of a questionnaire scale and the domain that it is designed to measure SHL, b. The inductive approach, which is more conducive to content validity, was used to develop the OPQ questionnaires.
Furthermore, job analytical techniques were used to define the domains to be measured, resulting in high content validity SHL, Criterion-related validity in occupational terms is the relationship between a score on a questionnaire and a measure of performance in a job. There is, however, a strong relationship between the two instruments. The correlational studies resulted in 25 scales of or above 0.
The remaining OPQ32 scales correlated between 0. Construct validity is the extent to which a scale measures a particular hypothetical construct or trait.
This consists of self-awareness and self-management. Self-awareness is all about recognizing and understanding how your own emotions both affect your interactions with others and impact on others' emotional state.
This involves being conscious of your own emotional state, something that can be challenging for number of reasons: Firstly, your emotions can change from one moment to the next. Secondly, you may experience a variety of emotions at any one time. Thirdly, the times when it is most important to be aware of your emotions are the times when you're under stress and therefore least likely to do so. Finally, you may also have certain mental blocks and not be prepared to recognize certain emotions for what they are.
It is quite common for people to be in denial about certain emotions like anger and fear because they believe them to be a sign of weakness. Such emotions are also seen as undesirable in the organization's culture. Consequently, emotional self-awareness may be easy to understand, but it is difficult to put into practice. You continually monitor, observe, and record the performance of your team members against their appraisal objectives. So use this same process to assess and note your own emotions and behavior.
This can help you to become aware of any patterns in your emotions throughout your working day. These notes are for your eyes only, so be completely honest with yourself. Create your own simple shorthand system for logging your feelings and your ability to control them during particular events. Your notes should detail: In this way you will be able to quickly identify whether your most common emotion is positive or not. The sort of questions to ask yourself are: Do particular people or activities cause you to feel negatively and how strong is this feeling?
Have you isolated certain events where you should have had strong feelings but didn't? Do you feel as though you are able to keep an accurate and fair record of your emotions, and if not why not?
Also, your notes will be able to reflect your strengths and weaknesses or areas for improvement, and you can then use the reflective cycle to identify an action plan. It is key that you note both activities that could have gone better and those that went well.
This way you will give yourself the same constructive and objective feedback that will build up your self-confidence.