Predator–Prey Relationships | butaivilniuje.info
In reality, the interaction between these two forms of population control work together to drive Population Cycles in a Predator-Prey System The bottom figure (b) illustrates how predator populations change in relation to prey abundance. Predator–Prey RelationshipsIntroductionPredator-prey relations refer to the interactions between two species where one species is the hunted food source for. Some examples of predator and prey are lion and zebra, bear and fish, and fox This lizard (above), camoflauges by blending with the lichen on rocks, while.
These predators are able to access small crevices and flush out the prey. Solitary predators have more chance of eating what they catch, at the price of increased expenditure of energy to catch it, and increased risk that the prey will escape.
These include speed, agility, stealth, sharp senses, claws, teeth, filters, and suitable digestive systems. Many predators have acute hearing, and some such as echolocating bats hunt exclusively by active or passive use of sound. Some predators such as snakes and fish-eating birds like herons and cormorants swallow their prey whole; some snakes can unhinge their jaws to allow them to swallow large prey, while fish-eating birds have long spear-like beaks that they use to stab and grip fast-moving and slippery prey.
Lions can attack much larger prey, including elephants, but do so much less often. Predators are often highly specialized in their diet and hunting behaviour; for example, the Eurasian lynx only hunts small ungulates.
When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey.
This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey.
Size may also act as a refuge for large prey. For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable. Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat.
Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders.
These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued. Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences.Ecological Relationships
They can try to avoid detection. They can detect predators and warn others of their presence. If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups.
If they become a target, they can try to fend off the attack with defences such as armour, quills, unpalatability or mobbing; and they can escape an attack in progress by startling the predator, shedding body parts such as tails, or simply fleeing.
They can also adopt behaviour that avoids predators by, for example, avoiding the times and places where predators forage. Camouflage and Mimicry Dead leaf mantis 's camouflage makes it less visible to both predators and prey. Syrphid hoverfly misdirects predators by mimicking a waspbut has no sting. Prey animals make use of a variety of mechanisms including camouflage and mimicry to misdirect the visual sensory mechanisms of predators, enabling the prey to remain unrecognized for long enough to give it an opportunity to escape.
Camouflage delays recognition through coloration, shape, and pattern. In mimicry, an organism has a similar appearance to another species, as in the drone flywhich resembles a bee yet has no sting.
Predator-prey cycles (video) | Ecology | Khan Academy
So you have the predator and prey interactions. I'm doing the prey in I guess a somewhat bloody color, I guess 'cause, well, they're going to be eaten.
So let's just think about how these populations could interact. Let me draw a little chart here that you're probably familiar with by now where we show how a population can change over time. So the time, the horizontal axis is time. The vertical axis is population. And so let's just, in our starting point, let's say that our prey is starting out at a relatively high point.
Let's say we're right there in time, and let's say for whatever reason, our predator population is relatively low.
Predation - Wikipedia
So what do we think is going to happen here? Well, at this point, with a low density of predators, it's gonna be much easier for them for find a meal, and it's gonna be much easier for the prey to get caught. So since it's more easy, it's easier for the predators to find a meal, you can imagine their population starting to increase. But what's going to happen is their population is increasing. Well, it's gonna be more likely that they're gonna, they prey is gonna get caught.
There's gonna be more of their hunters around, more of their predators around. So that population is going to start decreasing all the way to a point where if the population of the prey gets low enough, the predators are gonna have, they're gonna start having trouble finding food again, and so that their population might start to decrease, and as their population decreases, what's gonna happen to the prey?
Well, then, there's gonna be less predators around, so they might be able to, their population might start to increase. And so I think you see what's happening.
- Predators and prey
- Predator-prey cycles
The predator and prey, they can kind of form this cyclic interaction with each other. And what I've just drawn, this is often known as the predator-prey cycle.
And I just reasoned through that you can imagine a world where you can have the cycle between predator and prey populations. But you can also run computer simulations that will show this, and even observational data out in the field also shows this.