Aleksandar Vučić - Wikipedia
The law de facto halted Markovic's program of privatization, but when the Aleksandar Hadzic, Partner, JPM Jankovic Popovic Mitic Law Office for the government and did not endanger established social relationships. April Aleksandar Vucic, chairman of the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS), was . Belgrade's Savamala neighborhood in April , then ombudsman Sasa Jankovic released a report relationship and for up to one year for abuse of a subordinate or dependent. The . and de facto housing and educational segregation. Ombudsman Sasa Jankovic released a report that alleged police The coalition reported that segregation was the de facto result of or a power relationship and for up to one year for abuse of a subordinate or dependent.
There is a conviction that women are mostly readers of comic strips, if that; they rarely create them. This assumption is based on the fact that women authors are in utter minority when it comes to comics. How do you get along in the world of independent comic strip? The comic scene I am part of includes many women. To cite just some of the names: In the workshops I meet many girls who are interested in comics.
It was a world of strict division into male and female callings. Comics became a form of entertainment for boys and this was the path the industry took. It was not until the underground strip phenomenon, which brought a freedom of expression, that women started to get more actively involved in the creative process.
I am referring to a group engagement to the distribution and publishing, maybe even in the sense of finance acquisition, not necessarily in the sense of hanging out together. The differences have to be recognized, but more in the sense of specificity. Works should be assessed according to other criteria than the sex. How do you view your own work, which digresses from the realistic and linear storytelling? The classic dramatic structure is something I struggled with many years, because it was enforced as a rule.
To me, this was always a hinder when it came to inspiration.
From the moment I gave up on the system, I stopped having problems with creativity. Your comics easily transcend from the tangible to the fantasy world. How hard is it to portrait these transitions between levels of reality? The so-called tangible reality is one of the greatest frauds we unconditionally believe, even though it could be just one layer of a given infinity.
When I am creating a comic, what is most important is to surprise myself and in this way I achieve twists that are reminiscent of the dream world. I always manage to find symbolism in these absurdities, which proves that everything has its own meaning and that nothing is a coincidence.
Brains are too mystified; they are just an organ weighing around grams. Does your sense of humour help? We know it to be dark and sometimes mean, but at the same time breezy. I see my work as a type of psychotherapy, but my humour stems from my attitude towards myself. I love the fusion of humour and horror; it results in a tingling feeling inside me that escalates into dilated pupils and finally ecstasy. In any case, I cannot imagine life without humour, no matter its shape or size.
The GDP of Serbia has surpassed the pre crisis of levels as have the salaries. This makes us more European than some member states. In SeptemberCroatia barred all cargo traffic from Serbia,  due to the migrant influx coming from Serbia in a move which further eroded the fragile relations between the two countries.
The verdict has caused controversy in Croatia. These five conditions are: Vice President Mike Pencewhere they discussed U.
We want what's ours, Serbian. He was attacked by a mob in the crowd with stones, bottles and other objects and had to flee the area. Based on the registration conducted in cooperation with UNHCR following the Kosovo conflict, the government provided identification cards to all persons displaced by the conflict who wanted to register as internally displaced persons IDPs.
All registered migrants and asylum seekers received special identification cards that made them eligible for humanitarian assistance and facilitated their free movement as well as access to basic government services. Approximately 80 percent resided in urban areas.
According to UNHCR, more than 90, of these persons were extremely vulnerable and in need of assistance. Romani displaced persons were the most vulnerable and marginalized displaced population in the country. According to UNHCR, 92 percent of internally displaced Romani households were below the at-the-risk-of-poverty threshold and 98 percent of the displaced Romani households could not satisfy basic nutritional needs or afford to pay for utilities, health care, hygiene, education, and local transport.
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Romani displaced persons had a 74 percent unemployment rate. Many displaced Roma living in informal settlements still had a permanent address registered in their place of origin in Kosovo, which prevented them from fully accessing their rights. A significant portion of Romani displaced persons could not access health care due to a lack of adequate personal documents.
They lacked information and necessary documents and had problems acquiring birth certificates, registering for school, etc. The government provided 30 housing solutions for displaced Romani persons in Belgrade during the year. While government officials continued to state publicly that displaced persons from Kosovo should return, senior government officials also claimed that it was unsafe for many to do so. To assist refugees from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as displaced persons from Kosovo, the government continued to implement its National Strategy on Refugees and Internally Displaced People, which was adopted in line with UN guiding principles.
It was expanded and updated in The housing situation of many displaced persons remained a source of concern. Many of the 90, extremely vulnerable displaced persons from Kosovo lived in substandard private accommodation.
The Commissariat for Refugees and Migration reported that displaced persons from Kosovo remained in nine official collective centers in the country, in minimally habitable facilities originally constructed for temporary accommodation.
During the year the government provided housing solutions and income-generation packages to displaced persons. Local NGOs and international organizations provided additional housing, financial assistance, and free legal assistance for civil registration, resolution of property claims, securing work rights, and obtaining personal documents.
Protection of Refugees According to the government, Serbia was a transit country through which a very large, mixed flow of migrants and asylum seekers traveled to Western Europe.
After the closure of the "Balkan route" on March 8, the number of migrants who passed through Serbia dropped in comparison withwhenpersons passed through the country. In the first eight months of the year, the Ministry of Interior registered approximately 96, migrants and asylum seekers who transited the country.
Observers believed the real number was higher, since many migrants transited the country without being registered by the government.
A total of 30 migrants per day were allowed to access the Hungarian asylum system, while the rest used illegal paths to enter other EU countries. Above this enforced quota, Hungarian authorities pushed potential asylum seekers back to Serbia without providing them an opportunity to seek protection in Hungary see section 2. As of the end of November, approximately 6, migrants were present in Serbia; 5, migrants were accommodated in 13 official centers, approximately 1, slept in abandoned warehouses in Belgrade city center, and approximately slept in makeshift accommodations directly on the border with Hungary.
These migrants remain stranded in Serbia for an indefinite period. The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has a system for giving protection to refugees. The asylum office within the Ministry of Interior is responsible for implementing the system but lacked the capacity, resources, and trained staff to do so effectively.
While the law is broadly in accordance with international standards, failures and delays in the implementation of its provisions denied asylum seekers access a prompt and effective individual assessment of their protection needs. In the majority of cases, asylum applications were discontinued or suspended because the applicants left the country. According to UNHCR, the primary reasons for asylum seekers to leave the country were their lack of interest in living in the country and the lengthy government procedure for adjudicating applications.
Although 8, individuals had expressed an intention of seeking asylum in the country, most departed and only formally applied for asylum. Of asylum seekers interviewed, only 11 received positive refugee status determinations. In response to migrants staying for longer periods of time in the country, the government expanded its network of five official asylum centers Krnjaca, Sjenica, Tutin, Banja Koviljaca, and Bogovadja with the opening of 12 additional centers Subotica, Principovac, Sid, Adasevci, Bujanovac, Presevo, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot, Bela Palanka, Bosilegrad, Sombor, and Kikinda with capacity to accommodate nearly 6, persons.
International humanitarian organizations raised concerns about the government's interpretation and use of the concept of safe third country, which was not in line with international standards. It was government policy to issue blanket denials of asylum to applicants from a "safe country of origin. As a result, all neighboring states recognized by Serbia were on its list of "safe third countries.
Most migrants, however, expressed the intention to seek asylum in the country in order to move freely, stay in government-provided accommodation with food provided, and pause before finding smugglers to take them to countries further north and west in the EU. At the same time, Hungary returned thousands of migrants to Serbia see Abuse of Migrants, Refugees, and Stateless Persons, above, and section 2. Humanitarian organizations noted the country lacked the resources and expertise to provide sufficient protection against refoulement but in principle agreed to refrain from refoulement.
Various press reports and reporting from humanitarian sources also indicated the authorities started pushing back irregular migrants without screening them for persons seeking asylum.
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Asylum seekers do not have the right to employment. Employment is available only once an applicant is recognized as a refugee at the end of the country's refugee determination process. The Commissariat for Refugees and Migration remained in charge of local integration of refugees. Access to Basic Services: Asylum seekers had the right to access health and education services, although barriers including language and cultural differences limited practical access.
The government provided support for the voluntary return and reintegration of refugees from the former Yugoslavia. Those who chose the option of integration in Serbia rather than return to their country of origin enjoyed the same rights as Serbian nationals, including access to basic services such as health and education, and had access to simplified naturalization in the country; they did not have the right to vote unless their naturalization process was completed. According to the commissariat's official statistics, 20, refugees from Croatia and 9, from Bosnia and Herzegovina resided in the country, while the government estimated that approximatelytoformer refugees were naturalized but not socially or economically integrated into the country.
Approximately 83 refugees from the former Yugoslavia lived in nine collective centers throughout the country. The government provided housing for 95 persons. Together with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Montenegro, the country participated in the Regional Housing Project RHP to provide housing for approximately 16, vulnerable refugee families who decided to integrate into the country. The RHP assembly of donors approved six project proposals to provide housing to more than 5, refugee families living in the country.
As of year's end, 1, housing solutions had been provided or were under construction. The government also provided protection to individuals who may not qualify as refugees.
The government granted 16 asylum seekers with subsidiary protection until the end of August. Stateless Persons According to UNHCR, an estimated 2, persons — primarily Roma, Egyptians, and Ashkali — were at risk of statelessness in the country, of which approximately remained without birth registration. The government has laws and procedures that afford the opportunity for late birth registration and residence registration as well as the opportunity to gain nationality.
Poverty, social marginalization, lack of information, cumbersome and lengthy bureaucratic procedures, difficulty in obtaining documents, the lack of an officially recognized residence, and the lack of birth registration limited the ability of those at risk of statelessness to gain nationality. The government cooperated tepidly with international organizations and implemented measures to deal with specific situations of statelessness.
Freedom to Participate in the Political Process The constitution and law provide citizens the ability to choose their government in free and fair periodic elections held by secret ballot and based on universal and equal suffrage.
Elections and Political Participation Recent Elections: In April the country held early parliamentary elections that international observers stated offered voters a variety of choices and were mostly free and fair. The report noted that biased media coverage, undue advantage of incumbency, and a blurring of distinction between state and party activities "unlevelled" the playing field for contestants.
For example, there were several reports that local government officials and directors of public companies compelled employees to attend political rallies under threat of losing their jobs.
The NGO Center for Research, Transparency, and Accountability reported allegations that pressure had been exerted on voters and of vote buying in Novi Sad and Vojvodina, particularly targeting Roma and other vulnerable groups.
Political Parties and Political Participation: On March 27, several individuals attacked a group of representatives of the opposition Democratic Party DS who were conducting voter outreach in the Belgrade municipality of Zvezdara, injuring one DS representative. DS leader Bojan Pajtic characterized the attack as part of an "organized oppression of political opponents" by the current government.
The ruling SNS party condemned the attack but later accused the DS of falsifying video footage of the incident. Police arrested four individuals as suspects in the case. Participation of Women and Minorities: No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and women and minorities did participate. Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government The law provides criminal penalties for corruption by officials.
There was a widespread public perception that the government did not implement the law systematically and that officials sometimes engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. EU experts noted continuing problems with the overuse of the vague "abuse of office" charge for alleged private sector corruption schemes.
Despite the government's publicly stated commitment to fight corruption, the Anticorruption Council and the NGO Transparency Serbia continued to point to a lack of governmental transparency.
The Organized Crime Prosecutor's Office prosecuted cases of high-level corruption in the Belgrade Higher Court for Organized Crime; other corruption cases were prosecuted in the country's regular court system. The Ministry of Interior generally handled internal corruption cases within the ministry and turned over the results of their investigation to the appropriate prosecutor's office.
The government cited this law as its principal tool in addressing corruption from a law enforcement perspective. The Anticorruption Agency ACA is an autonomous and independent oversight body accountable to parliament. Its main tasks include supervising the implementation of the national strategy for combating corruption and related action plan; resolving conflict of interest cases; reviewing political party financing; managing international cooperation in the fight against corruption; and preventing corruption in cooperation with the government, media, NGOs, and the general public.
Although the ACA actively engaged with other state institutions and civil society organizations and received technical assistance from various donors, it failed to perform some of its functions and establish its authority.
Due to legislative loopholes, the ACA also was unable to react in a number of cases of clear public-private conflict of interest. According to the ACA's annual report forthere were improvements with the number of asset disclosures, conflict of interest reporting 17 percent more complaints than inand corruption risk assessments conducted as a part of the legislation drafting process.
The ACA continued to be understaffed, with more than 40 percent of its positions unfilled, and underresourced. The agency's access to databases of other state organs continued to be very limited.
The follow-up on its findings and recommendations by other state institutions and officials improved slightly compared with previous years. During the year criminal justice and law enforcement authorities initiated a number of high-level anticorruption cases. Large-scale police operations included the March 18 arrest of 46 persons suspected of money laundering, bribery, and abuse of office operation Scanner and the April 15 arrest of an additional 49 individuals for bribery, corruption, money laundering, and other types of economic-related crimes operation Scanner II.
The timing of the arrests with respect to upcoming nationwide elections in April raised activists' concerns about the use of the arrests for political purposes.
The decision to arrest suspects rather than issue summons for nonviolent offenses with a low risk of flight, the filming by police of the arrests some police videos later appeared in local mediaand the fact that many of the investigations were unrelated were cited by activists as further causes for concern.
On March 26, Marko Miskovic was convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to three and one-half years in prison. Miskovic and his son were arrested inand the then new coalition government portrayed the arrests as an important step in the fight against corruption.
Some activists raised concerns about the possibility that the arrests and judicial process were politically motivated. The law requires income and asset disclosure by appointed or elected officials. Under the law the ACA oversees the filing of disclosures and verifies their completeness and accuracy.
Declarations are publicly available on the ACA website and upon request. Significant changes to assets or income must be reported annually. Officials also must file a disclosure form immediately after leaving office and must inform the ACA of any significant changes to their assets for two years after leaving office. In the ACA received 6, reports on the income and assets of elected or appointed officials.
The ACA continued to initiate administrative and criminal proceedings against several former and current government officials who failed to file or incorrectly filed asset disclosure forms. During the year it initiated requests for misdemeanor proceedings; a majority of the cases were for failing to report assets on time. The agency filed 15 criminal reports to the prosecution based on the suspicion that public officials did not disclose assets to the ACA or that they gave false information with the intent to conceal the status of their assets.
Based on information found in financial disclosure forms, the ACA filed 19 complaints based on evidence of possible criminal offenses giving and taking bribes, tax evasion, money laundering, etc. Public Access to Information: The government did not fully implement the access to information law and generally did not provide access to government information.
The law provides for public access to information of "legitimate public importance" — with many exceptions — and establishes an independent commissioner for information of public importance, selected by parliament, to handle appeals when government agencies reject requests for information.
The number of individual complaints to the commissioner for violation of the right to free access to public information continued to rise inwith 4. Continuing the trend from previous years, the most requests for access to information Individual citizens and citizens' association, journalists, and media representatives were the most common requesters.
Most of the commissioner's activities involved handling cases of individuals who did not receive information from a public authority. Authorities continued to act on requests only after receiving a complaint from the commissioner. Nearly half of the complaints were directed at state authorities, especially ministries.
While the commissioner's staff had adequate office space, the number of staff members was insufficient to handle the caseload. The commissioner continued to criticize ministries and state organs for not adopting by-laws to implement their legal obligations. In June the Whistleblower Protection Law, adopted by parliament inentered into force.
During the law's first nine months in effect, 36 cases were initiated before the courts, of which the courts in 27 cases provided interim protection to a whistleblower. Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights A variety of independent domestic and international human rights groups generally operated without government restriction, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases.
While government officials generally were cooperative and responsive to their questions, the groups were subject to criticism, harassment, and threats from nongovernmental actors, including progovernment media outlets, for expressing views critical of the government or contrary to nationalist views regarding Kosovo, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and the wars of the s.
On January 21, unidentified perpetrators broke the windows of the office of the Human Rights House in Belgrade, which included the offices of several prominent NGOs. Interior Minister Nebojsa Stefanovic condemned the attack. As of year's end, authorities had made no progress in identifying any suspects in the case. In March the director of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies, Jelena Milic, was given police protection after receiving threats for more than a year. Interior Minister Stefanovic condemned the threats against Milic and stated that police were working intensively on the case.
There were no arrests during the course of the investigation. In a coalition of Serbian NGOs conducted an independent "self-evaluation" of the country's implementation of its human rights commitments. The coalition concluded that the protection of the rights of individuals belonging to minority communities and the principle of voluntary self-identification had not been fully implemented.
The coalition reported that segregation was the de facto result of minority rights policies in the country. According to NGOs, the government did not complete any follow-up activities related to the self-evaluation during the year.
Government Human Rights Bodies: The Office of the Ombudsman is responsible for identifying problems within state institutions and making recommendations on ways to remedy them.
The ombudsman continued to operate branch offices in three municipalities with significant ethnic Albanian populations.
Vojvodina Province had its own ombudsman, who operated independently during the year. The commissioner for the protection of equality has legal authority to bring civil lawsuits against businesses and government institutions for violations of the law. During the year Ombudsman Sasa Jankovic faced personal attacks from a number of media outlets that had close ties to the ruling SNS.
The attacks began after Jankovic filed criminal charges against two members of the military police in January The charges stemmed from an incident during the Belgrade Pride Parade in which two members of the military police, the prime minister's brother, and the brother of the mayor of Belgrade clashed with members of a special police unit. Several high-level government officials criticized the ombudsman publicly for filing the charges.
Verbal attacks on Jankovic continued throughout year. In April the minister of interior publicly read a police record from about a suicide that took place in a house that was then owned by Jankovic without him being present. Information from the same record was distributed by tabloid media the day before the interior minister officially presented it.
The tabloid outlet Informer continued for months to print articles calling on authorities to investigate Jankovic's role in the case. State officials, members of parliament, and tabloid media continued to accuse Jankovic of politicizing his position and office. In August the media reported that the website Youtube had blocked one of its channels featuring the ombudsman's appearance in various television programs due to the large number of complaints about offensive and violent content.
When the Ombudsman's Office appealed the suspension of the channel, its petition was rejected. After the ombudsman tweeted about his case, Youtube lifted the suspension. The commissioner for information and personal data protection, Rodoljub Sabic, received threats following his public insistence that police investigate the midnight destruction of a neighborhood in the Belgrade district of Savamala on April 25 see section 1. The Office of the High Prosecutor investigated the incident and declared that the commissioner had "refused to cooperate" during the investigation, a claim that the commissioner later refuted.
NGOs expressed concern that continuous attacks against the ombudsman and the commissioner were aimed at undermining independent institutions.
The ombudsman's report asserted that statements by government officials questioning the ombudsman's mandate to investigate certain cases damaged efforts by the Ombudsman's Office to prevent and combat impunity for torture. Rape, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 40 years in prison. The government did not enforce the law effectively. Advocates believed that only a small percentage of rape victims reported their attacks because of fear of reprisal from their attackers or humiliation in court.
Violence against women continued to be a problem. Domestic violence is punishable by up to 10 years' imprisonment. While the law provides women the right to obtain a restraining order against abusers, the government did not enforce the law effectively. Domestic violence cases were difficult to prosecute because of the lack of witnesses or evidence and the unwillingness of witnesses or victims to testify.
While authorities generally acknowledged high levels of domestic violence, there were no reliable statistics on the extent of the problem. The law strengthens protective measures for domestic violence victims by temporarily removing the perpetrator from the home for a minimum of 48 hours to a maximum of 30 days.
Implementation of the law was scheduled to begin in June According to media reports, through October family violence had claimed the lives of 24 women. In August the ombudsman established that, in 12 of 14 reported cases of killings of women, the relevant institutions failed to respond to reported violence against the women prior to the incident. The ombudsman alleged that there were attempts to cover up these failures by authorities.
According to the Autonomous Women's Center inan estimated 1, women moved to safe houses throughout the country while only 71 perpetrators were removed from their residences.
According to the commissioner for the protection of equality, the majority of cases filed with that institution dealt with discrimination against women. The few official agencies dedicated to combatting family violence had inadequate resources. In there were 14 safe houses for women in operation, most operated by NGOs. In a few cases, local municipalities contributed financial support.
All safe houses also accommodated the children of the women in residence. According to the assessments of NGOs, women returned to their abuser from seven to 11 times before making the final decision to leave. Some safe houses reported that up to half of their resident victims returned to their abuser.8. Q7. De facto relationship?
Sexual harassment is a crime punishable by imprisonment for up to six months in cases that do not involve abuse or a power relationship and for up to one year for abuse of a subordinate or dependent.
Public awareness of the problem remained low, and women filed few complaints during the year.