Martin Buber (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
documento(s) a partir de um endereço de IP da instituição detentora da supramencionada licença. Plato's cosmological medicine in the discourse of Eryximachus in the Symposium: . relation with the Hippocratic Corpus.7 This ap ‑ .. e antropologia nel Timeo, Adolf Kakkert Editore, La filosofia dialettica di Platone. historical point of view; Utopia y reformismo en la Espana de las Austrias (); He has written essays on Plato, Aristotle, and Scholastic philosophy. analysis, seeing literature in its relationship to the meaning and happiness in human life. Among Marias' many publications are Historia de la filosofia (); El tema del. Plato and his works . Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Plato's uncertain relationship to Parmenides», Parmenides (congrès) , .. La diferencia sexual en los diálogos de Platón: antropología filosófica de la.
Plato and Platonism, Platonic reception, Platonic tradition
Christian anthropology Augustine of Hippo was one of the first Christian ancient Latin authors with a very clear anthropological vision,[ need quotation to verify ] although it is not clear if he had any influence on Max Schelerthe founder of philosophical anthropology as an independent discipline, nor on any of the major philosophers that followed him. Augustine has been cited by Husserl and Heidegger as one of the early writers to inquire on time-consciousness and the role of seeing in the feeling of "Being-in-the-world".
In no wise are the bodies themselves to be spurned. For these pertain not to ornament or aid which is applied from without, but to the very nature of man. After the fall of humanity they are now experiencing dramatic combat between one another. They are two categorically different things: It sufficed for him to admit that they were metaphysically distinct. To be a human is to be a composite of soul and body, and that the soul is superior to the body.
The latter statement is grounded in his hierarchical classification of things into those that merely exist, those that exist and live, and those that exist, live, and have intelligence or reason. Blasquez, Augustine's dualism of substances of the body and soul doesn't stop him from seeing the unity of body and soul as a substance itself.
Immanuel Kant — taught the first lectures on anthropology in the European academic world. He specifically developed a conception of pragmatic anthropology, according to which the human being is studied as a free agent. At the same time, he conceived of his anthropology as an empirical, not a strictly philosophical discipline. Although the majority of philosophers throughout the history of philosophy can be said to have a distinctive " anthropology " that undergirds their thought, philosophical anthropology itself, as a specific discipline in philosophy, arose within the later modern period as an outgrowth from developing methods in philosophy, such as phenomenology and existentialism.
The former, which draws its energy from methodical reflection on human experience first person perspective as from the philosopher's own personal experience, naturally aided the emergence of philosophical explorations of human nature and the human condition.
Scheler sought to apply Husserl's phenomenological approach to different topics. From Scheler laid the foundation for philosophical anthropology as a philosophical discipline, competing with phenomenology and other philosophic disciplines. Husserl and Martin Heidegger —were the two most authoritative philosophers in Germany at the time, and their criticism to philosophical anthropology and Scheler have had a major impact on the discipline.
From his early reading of philosophical literature Buber retained some of the most basic convictions found in his later writings. In Kant he found two answers to his concern with the nature of time. If time and space are pure forms of perception, then they pertain to things only as they appear to us as phenomena and not to things-in-themselves noumena. Thus time concerns the way in which we experience not just things but also people.
If our experience of others, especially of persons, is of objects of our experience, then we necessarily reduce them to the scope of our phenomenal knowledge, in other words, to what Buber later called the I-It relation. Yet Kant also indicated ways of meaningfully speaking of the noumenal, even though not in terms of theoretical reason.
Practical reason — i. This suggests something like an absolute obligation. Teleological aesthetic judgment, as developed in Kant's Third Critique, suggests the possibility of a rational grounding of representation. Taken together, Kant's conceptions of ethics and aesthetics resonated with Buber's notion that the phenomenon is always the gateway to the noumenon, just as the noumenal cannot be encountered other than in and by way of concrete phenomena.
Thus Buber managed to meld Kantian metaphysical and ethical conceptions into a more immediate relation with things as they appear to us and as we represent them to ourselves that resonated with a conception of reality in its immediacy that he had discovered in Nietzsche.
Buber thus conceives of the Dionysian primacy of life in its particularity, immediacy, and individuality and the Apollonian world of form, measure, and abstraction as inter-dependent.
Both are constitutive of human experience in that they color our interactions with the Other in nature, with other human beings, and with the divine Thou. Buber uses Gestalt as a term of central, constitutive, and animating power, contrasting it with the Platonic term Form, which he associates with a lack of genuine vitality.
Commenting upon a work by Michelangelo, Buber speaks of Gestalt as hidden in the raw material, waiting to emerge as the artist wrestles with the dead block. The artistic struggle instantiates and represents the more fundamental opposition between formative gestaltende and shapeless gestaltlose principles.
The tension between these, for Buber, lay at the source of all spiritual renewal, raging within every human individual as the creative, spiritual act that subjugates unformed, physical stuff b: It is the free play of Gestalt that quickens the dead rigidity of form. The wrestling with form and its overcoming and its reanimation with living energy in Buber's early work was rooted in a concern with the embodiment of perception and imagination.
Everything starts from the most basic facts of human existence: As understood by the early Buber following a Kantian intuitionthe world is one in which the objective spatial order was dissolved, where up and down, left and right, bear no intrinsic meaning. More fundamentally, orientation is always related to the body, which is, however, an objective datum.
Ethical life remains inextricably linked, within the world of space, to the human body and to physical sensation as they reach across the divide toward an unmitigated Erlebnis. Buber conceived of political community as a type of plastic shape, an object or subject of Gestaltung and hence realization.
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The first arena for his social, psychological, and educational engagement was the Zionist movement. Buber's interest in social philosophy was stimulated by Gustav Landauer whom he recruited to write the volume on revolution for his series Die Gesellschaft. As a pioneer of social thought and a student of Georg Simmel, Buber participated in the founding conference of the German sociological association. While Buber's social-psychological approach to the study and description of social phenomena was eclipsed by quantitative approaches, his interest in the constitutive correlation between the individual and his and her social experience remained an important aspect of his philosophy of dialogue.
It came to the fore again in his last academic position at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, where he taught social philosophy prominent students: Amitai Etzioni, Shmuel Eisenstadt. Buber's thought matured under the impact of the realization that he had unduly romanticized the war.
Buber's lead essay of the new journal Der Jude still praised the war as an opportunity for the modern Jew to forge out of the chaos of rupture a feeling for community, connection, a new unity, a unified Gestalt, one that could restore the Jewish people to a condition of wholeness. Landauer's challenge to the grotesque fusion of Erlebnis, Gemeinschaft, and Gestalt out of world war and mass slaughter precipitated the end of aesthetic religiosity in Buber's work.
I and Thou Buber's best-known work is the short philosophical essay I and Thouthe basic tenets of which he was to modify, but never to abandon. We are beings that can enter into dialogic relations not just with human others but with other animate beings, such as animals, or a tree, as well as with the Divine Thou. The duality of relations and, at its extreme, their coincidence, may serve as the key to Buber's mature thought on everything from his approach to biblical faith to his practical politics in matters of Jewish-Arab relations in Palestine.
In the s and 60s, when Buber first traveled and lectured in the USA, the essay became popular in the English-speaking world as well. Whereas before World War I Buber had promoted an aesthetic of unity and unification, his later writings embrace a rougher and more elemental dualism.
Complicating the undifferentiated shape of mystical experience as sought by the medievals, including Eckhart, as an annihilation of selfthe profoundly dualistic world-view proffered in I and Thou references Cusa's coincidentia oppositorum as an expression of human limits.
Buber's text reduces the relation between persons, animate objects, and deity to three expressive signifiers: They are the elemental variables whose combination and re-combination structure all experience as relational. The individuated elements realize themselves in relations, forming patters that burst into life, grow, vanish, and revive. Human inter-subjectivity affirms the polymorphous I-Thou encounter. The heteronomous revelation of a singular presence calls the subject into an open-ended relationship, a living pattern, that defies sense, logic, and proportion; whereas the I-It relationship, in its most degenerate stage, assumes the fixed form, the density and duration of hyper-realist painting, of objects that one can measure and manipulate.
Contrasting with the Kantian concept of experience ErfahrungErlebnis encounteror revelation of sheer presence, is an ineffable, pure form that carries not an iota of determinate or object-like conceptual or linguistic content.
Buber always insisted that the dialogic principle, i. Debates about the strength and weakness of I and Thou as the foundation of a system hinge, in part, on the assumption that the five-volume project, to which this book was to serve as a prolegomenon a project Buber abandonedwas indeed a philosophical one. In Buber's cyclical conception of the history of religions, the revelation of presence mixes into and animates the living and lived forms of historical religion institutions, texts, rituals, images, and ideasbecoming over time ossified and rigid and object-like, but structurally open to the force of renewal based on new forms of encounter as revelation.
The history of religion as described by Buber in the closing words of I and Thou is a contracting, intensifying spiral figure that has redemption as its telos. It would be artificial, however, to separate Buber's interest in religious phenomena from his interest in a general philosophical anthropology. Rather, Buber seems to have tried to find one in the other, or—put differently—to make religious belief and practice perspicacious in light of a general philosophical anthropology.
Zionism At the very beginning of his literary career, Buber was recruited by the Budapest-born and Vienna-based journalist Theodor Herzl to edit the main paper of the Zionist party, Die Welt.
Buber's phases of engagement in the movement's political institutions alternated with extended phases of disengagement, but he never ceased to write and speak about what he understood to be the distinctive Jewish brand of nationalism. Buber seems to have derived an important lesson from the early struggles between political and cultural Zionism for the leadership and direction of the movement. He realized that his place was not in high diplomacy and political education but in the search for psychologically sound foundations on which to heal the rift between modern realpolitik and a distinctively Jewish theological-political tradition.
Very much in keeping with the nineteenth-century Protestant yearning for a Christian foundation of the nation-state, Buber sought a healing source in the integrating powers of religious experience. After a hiatus of more than ten years during which Buber spoke to Jewish youth groups most famously the Prague Bar Kokhba but refrained from any practical involvement in Zionist politics, he reentered Zionist debates in when he began publishing the journal Der Jude, which served as an open forum of exchange on any issues related to cultural and political Zionism.
In the debates that followed the first anti-Zionist riots in Palestine, Buber joined the Brit Shalom, which argued for peaceful means of resistance.
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During the Arab revolt of —39, when the British government imposed quotas on immigration to Palestine, Buber argued for demographic parity rather than trying to achieve a Jewish majority. Finally, in the wake of the Biltmore Conference, Buber as a member of Ihud argued for a bi-national rather than a Jewish state in Palestine.
At any of these stages Buber harbored no illusion about the chances of his political views to sway the majority but he believed that it was important to articulate the moral truth as one saw it. Needless to say, this politics of authenticity made him few friends among the members of the Zionist establishment. At the theoretical core of the Zionism advanced by Buber was a conception of Jewish identity being neither a religious nor a national form, but a unique hybrid.Introducción a la antropología filosófica
From early on, Buber rejected any state-form for the Jewish people in Palestine. This was clear already in a widely-noted exchange of letters with the liberal philosopher Hermann Cohen. Cohen rejected Zionism as incommensurate with the Jewish mission of living as a religious minority with the task of maintaining the idea of messianism that he saw as a motor of social and political reform within society at large.
In contrast, Buber embraced Zionism as the self-expression of a particular Jewish collective that could be realized only in its own land, on its soil, and in its language. The modern state, its means and symbols, however, were not genuinely connected to this vision of a Jewish renaissance. While in the writings of the early war years, Buber had characterized the Jews as an oriental type in perpetual motion, in his later writings the Jews represent no type at all.
Neither nation nor creed, they uncannily combine what he called national and spiritual elements. In his letter to Ghandi, Buber insisted on the spatial orientation of Jewish existence and defended the Zionist cause against the critic who saw in it only a form of colonialism.
For Buber, space was a necessary but insufficient material condition for the creation of culture based on dialogue. A Gesamtkunstwerk in its own right, the Zionist project was to epitomize the life of dialogue by drawing the two resident nations of Palestine into a perfectible common space free from mutual domination. Political Theology Buber honed his political theology in response to the conflict between fascism and communism, the two main ideologies dominating mid-twentieth century Europe.
His political position remained indissolubly linked to his philosophical-theological commitment to the life of dialogue developed in I and Thou. According to Buber, politics was the work by which a society shapes itself. He understood these to recognize neither an I nor a Thou in social life.
Buber resisted this slippage, privileging instead the anti-monarchical strata of the Hebrew Bible. In his book on the Kingship of God, the biblical hero Gideon from chapter eight of the Book of Judges stands out as the leader who, beating back the Philistine enemy, declines any claim to hereditary kingship. Against the theory staked out by Schmitt, the assertion that God alone is sovereign means that God's authority is non-transferable to any human head or political institution.
Thus Buber preserves the notion of divine sovereignty over all forms of state apparatus and tyranny. Buber maintained that once upon a time the Israelite deity YHWH was, in fact, the heretog or warrior-king of the people. But he also knew that he was unable to posit this for certain, and so proceeded to admit that the image reflects not a historical actuality that we can know but only a historical possibility.
It is not difficult to recognize in this description of the modern Jewish agricultural collective an updated version of the biblical tribal past that Buber idealized in his work on the primitive Israelite polity of the age of the biblical judges.
Late Philosophical Anthropology Responding to the unfolding political chaos in Europe and to the struggle between Jews and Arabs in Palestine, Buber's philosophical oeuvre assumed a more occasionalist and essayistic form in the late s and s. In addition to the works cited above and works on religion, the Bible, and prophetic faith, his last major philosophical publication was The Eclipse of God Buber turns to Kierkegaard in order to force the question of solipsism. For Buber, the Danish philosopher stands for a modern alienation from the world.