MISMO Standards | MISMO
Terminal velocity had an effect on LDD in both vegetation types, while types: In the open landscape the strength of the positive relationship. This type of relationship is often discussed as if the constituent “moved” or was There are several types of LDD constructions including whquestions. readelf -l main Elf file type is EXEC (Executable file) Entry point 0xe0 ldd is a tool that allows us to see recursive shared library dependencies. . Specifically, their relation to LD_LIBRARY_PATH - rpath is searched in.
The first spacer may be formed of an insulation material having an etch selectivity with respect to the second spacer layer. The first spacers may be removed to widen a gap between walls of the second spacer layer against sidewalls of the gate patterns. After removing the first spacers, the second spacer layers may be anisotropically etched to form second spacers at both sidewalls of the gate pattern. A metal silicide may then be formed in the silicon layer for exposed regions of the substrate.
Then, an interlayer insulation layer may be formed over the resultant structure. Removing the first spacer and leaving only the second spacer may help reduce the risk of void formation during the formation of the interlayer insulation. In a further embodiment, an etch stop layer is formed over the entire surface of the substrate as it would appear with the first spacer removed.
The etch stop layer may be formed as a thin layer so as to leave a sufficient gap between gate patterns, which may be filled with interlayer insulation. In a further embodiment, a medium-concentration ion implantation may be provided before the formation of the salicide layer. The medium-concentration ion implantation may comprise supplying energy and impurity ion dose amounts between those of the low and high concentrations.
The process of the medium-concentration ion implantation may be used to avoid electrical shorting between a contact and a substrate which may result from transformation of a lightly doped region into metal silicide. Such transformation may be likely for embodiments having metal salicide deeply formed within the substrate. In another embodiment, the second spacer layer and the etch stop layer are formed of a material having an etch selectivity with respect to the interlayer insulation layer and also with respect to the first spacer.
For a particular embodiment, the second spacer layer and the etch stop layer can be formed of silicon nitride or a silicon oxynitride. But when the etch stop layer is thermally treated, stresses may occur between the metal suicide and the etch stop layer. By forming the etch stop layer with silicon oxynitride, such stresses may be reduced. The first spacer may be formed of silicon oxide. Also, the interlayer insulation layer may be formed of a silicon oxide, e. In other embodiments, a capping layer may be formed on top of the gate pattern when the gate comprises a conductive layer.
In further embodiments, the gate pattern may comprise polysilicon, which may be treated with a metal to form a metal salicide at the top of the gate pattern. This structure with the metal salicide on the polysilicon may assist contact formation over the gate pattern and within core regions of an integrated circuit. Spacers may be formed along sidewalls of the gate pattern.
An interlayer insulation may be formed over the substrate and the gate pattern with spacers. An etch stop layer may be formed over the entire surface of the substrate between the gate pattern having spacers and the interlayer insulation layer, and the contact plug may be formed to pierce the interlayer insulation layer and the etch stop layer.
Rather, these exemplary embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the invention to those skilled in the art. Also, when it is mentioned that a layer is on another layer or on a substrate, the layer may be directly formed on another layer or on a substrate, or a third layer can be interposed therebetween.
For example, nitride may be layered over a substrate to prevent etching of the substrate while etching material e.
A gate insulation layer may insulate gates from body regions of the substrate After forming the gate patternexposed portions of the gate insulation layer beyond the sidewalls of gate pattern can be etched and removed.
The gate pattern may comprise polysilicon. After etch patterning to define gate patternsan anneal may be used to recover the etch-damage. During the anneal, a thin oxide layer may be formed over the surface of the gate pattern and substrate. Impurity ions may be implanted using gate pattern as an etch mask. Then, a spacer layer of silicon oxide may be formed and then anisotropically etched selectively with respect to nitride to form first spacers along sidewalls of the gate pattern and over and against the second spacer layer Impurity ions may then be implanted using the first spacer and gate pattern as ion-implantation masks for defining high implantation regions.
Isotropic etching may be used to remove the oxide spacers Next, anisotropic etching of the second spacer layer may form second spacers against sidewalls of the gate pattern Impurity ions may be implanted in regions of the substrate defined by gate and second spacer The metal layer over the isolation layer 2 and second spacers will not transition into metal silicide.
Thus, this metal that does not transition may be selectively removed during a subsequent metal etching process. Next, a silicon oxide may be formed over the substrate to provide interlayer insulation layer With the first spacer having already been removed, the space between the gate patterns may be greater than that which might otherwise be present, and the aspect ratio may be kept reasonable enough to allow for stacking of interlayer insulation material with reduced risk of void formation.
Additionally, the etch stop layer may protect the device isolation layer 2 and the metal silicide layer on the gate pattern from being over etched during the patterning of the interlayer insulation layer Continuing further, portions of etch stop layer that are exposed may then be removed through holes and For embodiments that may include the formation of interconnections by a damascene process, grooves for such interconnections might be formed in the top of the interlayer insulation layer together with the formation of the contact holes.
It may be noted that by removing the first spacer, contact holes may be formed with widths sufficient to receive interlayer insulation therein. This barrier layerin this embodiment, may be formed by CVD. The contact holes may then be filled with metal, e. For embodiments using a damascene process, the barrier layer and metal may be stacked in the interconnection grooves and CMP planarized the same as the stacking and planarization for the plug formations. In another embodiment, referencing FIG.
First, gate patterns may be formed in insulated relationship over a surface of substrate A gate insulation layer e. The gates may comprise polysilicon. Two different photolithographic processes may be used for definition of the two different transistors regions. The second spacer layer may comprise silicon nitride and the first spacer layer may comprise silicon oxide. Anisotropic etching of the first spacer layer may form first spacers along sidewalls of the gate patterns At this time, second spacer layer remains.
A high-concentration of N-type impurity ions may then be implanted into select regions of the substrate as defined by masking of the photoresist patternfirst spacer and gate pattern of the NMOS transistor region. A high-concentration of P-type impurity ions may then be implanted into select regions of the substrate as defined by masking of the photoresist patternfirst spacers and the gate pattern of the PMOS transistor region.
The first spacers may be removed using a silicon oxide layer etchant, e. The second spacer layer may then be anisotropically etched to leave thin second spacers along sidewalls of the gate patterns Thermal treatment may then allow formation of metal silicide and at locations where the metal contacts the silicon, e.
Metal at other locations will not be converted into silicide layer and may be removed by wet-etching. The etch stop layer may be formed with thickness less than the first spacer.
An interlayer insulation layer may be formed with a thickness suitable for covering the gate pattern One cell is shown; its property is defined by the attribute values stored in map layers Map1, Map2, Map3,…. The discretization of the spatial domain results in cells.
At each cell location, the total information for that cell is represented by the values of the different layers at that cell. The representation described here is sometimes referred to as 2. A stack of PCRaster maps resulting in a 2. One cell is shown; its property is defined by the attribute values stored in map layers Map1, Map2, Map3,… The spatial characteristics of a PCRaster map are defined by its geographical location attributes.
These define the shape and the area covered by the map and the size of the cells. The kind of attribute represented by the layers controls the type of operations that can be done with the data stored in the layer.
This knowledge is implemented in the PCRaster package by the idea of data types: Six data types are recognized. Data types for data in classes are the boolean, nominal and ordinal data types. The boolean data type is meant for data that may only have two values: Boolean logic can be applied to maps of this data type. The nominal data type represents data with an unlimited number of classes, for instance soil groups.
The ordinal data type also represents data in classes; unlike the nominal data type it includes the concept of order between the classes, for instance classes that represent income groups.
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The scalar and directional data type represent continuous data ; the scalar data type for data on a linear scale, for instance elevation, the directional data type for data on a circular scale, for instance aspect in the terrain. The ldd data type represents a map with a local drain direction network. For each cell, a local drain direction map contains a pointer to the neighbouring cell to which material for instance water will flow to.
The direction of these pointers is represented by ldd codes. PCRaster maps describes the format of maps, including the location attributes, data types and legends in detail. Relations between PCRaster maps can be defined by tables, which is the second kind of data used in PCRaster, see A table defining relations between PCRaster map layers; using these conditions a NewMap is generated, on a cell by cell basis.
In a table, map layers are combined by specifying keys. Each key gives a certain combination of cell values of the map layers 1,2,3,… A key may be for instance: Using the keys in a table a new map layer can be generated which contains information taken from several layers. For instance a soil map, vegetation map and a slope map can be combined using keys in a table containing the classes of these maps, generating a new map with landscape classes.
Also a table can be used for determining the number of cells that match the conditions given in the keys. Table format describes the format of tables. A table defining relations between PCRaster map layers; using these conditions a NewMap is generated, on a cell by cell basis The third kind of data used in PCRaster is the time series. In Dynamic Modelling, time series are linked to a PCRaster map to control spatial data that vary over time and space: For instance when simulating evapotranspiration of water in a catchment, for each time step the amount and the spatial distribution of rain water can be given in a time series; the amount of water that evaporates from a certain part of the map can be stored in a different time series.
The time series is a table that crosses the unique identifier values on a PCRaster map with the numbers of the successive time steps used in the model. During a model run, it is read from top to bottom. If the time series is used for data input to the model, each unique identifier value on the PCRaster map is assigned the value linked to that unique identifier in the time series. This is done for each time step. If the time series is used to store data, for each time step the model results for certain areas specified on the PCRaster map can be assigned to the time series.
Time series format describes the format of time series. In addition to spatial data in raster format, point data are used in the PCRaster package, stored as point data column files, the fourth sort of data used.
The Database — PCRaster documentation
Point data consist of a x,y coordinate and one or more attribute values. Quite often data will be available in this format, especially if they are gathered through field study. In the gstat module point data column files can be used for analysis of spatial structures with the variogram tools and for interpolation to a raster in PCRaster map format of estimated values using block kriging.
Point data column file format describes the format of point data column files. A header is attached to each PCRaster map; it contains both the location attributes and the data type of the map.
The location attributes define the position of the map with respect to a real world coordinate system, the size and shape of the map and its resolution cell size. The sort of attribute stored in the map is given by the data type of the map. The data type determines the PCRaster operations that can be performed on the map. Data typing used in PCRaster helps to structure your data. If you start a project, and want to import data to the PCRaster package in PCRaster map format it is wise first to make a map containing the header with the correct location attributes and the data type of the first data set you want to import.